The SHP-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase negatively modulates glucose homeostasis.
ABSTRACT The protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 is a well-known inhibitor of activation-promoting signaling cascades in hematopoietic cells but its potential role in insulin target tissues is unknown. Here we show that Ptpn6(me-v/me-v) (also known as viable motheaten) mice bearing a functionally deficient SHP-1 protein are markedly glucose tolerant and insulin sensitive as compared to wild-type littermates, as a result of enhanced insulin receptor signaling to IRS-PI3K-Akt in liver and muscle. Downregulation of SHP-1 activity in liver of normal mice by adenoviral expression of a catalytically inert mutant of SHP-1, or after small hairpin RNA-mediated SHP-1 silencing, further confirmed this phenotype. Tyrosine phosphorylation of CEACAM1, a modulator of hepatic insulin clearance, and clearance of serum [125I]-insulin were markedly increased in SHP-1-deficient mice or SHP-1-deficient hepatic cells in vitro. These findings show a novel role for SHP-1 in the regulation of glucose homeostasis through modulation of insulin signaling in liver and muscle as well as hepatic insulin clearance.
Article: Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1: a link between insulin and lipid metabolism.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Liver-specific inactivation of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) by a dominant-negative transgene (l-SACC1 mice) impaired insulin clearance, caused insulin resistance, and increased hepatic lipogenesis. To discern whether this phenotype reflects a physiological function of CEACAM1 rather than the effect of the dominant-negative transgene, we characterized the metabolic phenotype of mice with null mutation of the Ceacam1 gene (Cc1(-/-)). Mice were originally generated on a mixed C57BL/6x129sv genetic background and then backcrossed 12 times onto the C57BL/6 background. More than 70 male mice of each of the Cc1(-/-) and wild-type Cc1(+/+) groups were subjected to metabolic analyses, including insulin tolerance, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies, insulin secretion in response to glucose, and determination of fasting serum insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels. Like l-SACC1, Cc1(-/-) mice exhibited impairment of insulin clearance and hyperinsulinemia, which caused insulin resistance beginning at 2 months of age, when the mutation was maintained on a mixed C57BL/6x129sv background, but not until 5-6 months of age on a homogeneous inbred C57BL/6 genetic background. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed that the inbred Cc1(-/-) mice developed insulin resistance primarily in liver. Despite substantial expression of CEACAM1 in pancreatic beta-cells, insulin secretion in response to glucose in vivo and in isolated islets was normal in Cc1(-/-) mice (inbred and outbred strains). Intact insulin secretion in response to glucose and impairment of insulin clearance in l-SACC1 and Cc1(-/-) mice suggest that the principal role of CEACAM1 in insulin action is to mediate insulin clearance in liver.Diabetes 07/2008; 57(9):2296-303. · 8.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Years before insulin was discovered, anti-inflammatory sodium salicylate was used to treat diabetes in 1901. Intriguingly for many years that followed, diabetes was viewed as a disorder of glucose metabolism, and then it was described as a disease of dysregulated lipid metabolism. The diabetes research focused on the causal relationship between obesity and insulin resistance, a major characteristic of type 2 diabetes. It is only within the past 20 years when the notion of inflammation as a cause of insulin resistance began to surface. In obesity, inflammation develops when macrophages infiltrate adipose tissue and stimulate adipocyte secretion of inflammatory cytokines, that in turn affect energy balance, glucose and lipid metabolism, leading to insulin resistance. This report reviews recent discoveries of stress kinase signaling involving molecular scaffolds and endoplasmic reticulum chaperones that regulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis. As we advance from a conceptual understanding to molecular discoveries, a century-old story of inflammation and insulin resistance is re-born with new ideas.Korean Diabetes Journal 06/2010; 34(3):137-45.
Article: Prep1 controls insulin glucoregulatory function in liver by transcriptional targeting of SHP1 tyrosine phosphatase.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigated the function of the Prep1 gene in insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis in liver. Prep1 action on insulin glucoregulatory function has been analyzed in liver of Prep1-hypomorphic mice (Prep1(i/i)), which express 2-3% of Prep1 mRNA. Based on euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies and measurement of glycogen content, livers from Prep1(i/i) mice feature increased sensitivity to insulin. Tyrosine phosphorylation of both insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1/2 was significantly enhanced in Prep1(i/i) livers accompanied by a specific downregulation of the SYP and SHP1 tyrosine phosphatases. Prep1 overexpression in HepG2 liver cells upregulated SYP and SHP1 and inhibited insulin-induced IR and IRS1/2 phosphorylation and was accompanied by reduced glycogen content. Consistently, overexpression of the Prep1 partner Pbx1, but not of p160MBP, mimicked Prep1 effects on tyrosine phosphorylations, glycogen content, and on SYP and SHP1 expression. In Prep1 overexpressing cells, antisense silencing of SHP1, but not that of SYP, rescued insulin-dependent IR phosphorylation and glycogen accumulation. Both Prep1 and Pbx1 bind SHP1 promoter at a site located between nucleotides -2,113 and -1,778. This fragment features enhancer activity and induces luciferase function by 7-, 6-, and 30-fold, respectively, in response to Prep1, Pbx1, or both. SHP1, a known silencer of insulin signal, is a transcriptional target of Prep1. In liver, transcriptional activation of SHP1 gene by Prep1 attenuates insulin signal transduction and reduces glucose storage.Diabetes 01/2011; 60(1):138-47. · 8.29 Impact Factor