Effect of aged garlic extract against methotrexate-induced damage to the small intestine in rats.
ABSTRACT Methotrexate (MTX) chemotherapy is often accompanied by side effects such as gastrointestinal ulceration and diarrhea. The aim of this study was to examine histologically whether an aged garlic extract (AGE) had a protective effect on the small intestine of rats with MTX-induced damage. Forty male Wistar albino rats were randomized into experimental and control groups and divided into four groups of ten animals. To the first group, MTX was applied as a single dose (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. To the second group, in addition to MTX application, AGE (250 mg/kg) was administered orally every day at the same time by intragastric intubation until the rats were killed. To the third group, AGE only was given. The fourth group was the control. All animals were killed 4 days after the intraperitoneal injection of MTX for histopathologic analysis and tissue MDA levels. Before killing, intracardiac blood was obtained from each animal to perform biochemical analysis (plasma lactate level). MTX was found to lead to damage in the jejunal tissues and to increase the MDA and lactate levels in the plasma. Administration of the AGE decreased the severity of jejunal damage, but increased MDA and lactate levels caused by MTX treatment on the other hand. These results suggest that AGE may protect the small intestine of rats from MTX-induced damage. Thus this study substantiated the thought that the protective effect of AGE is derived from the manner in which it interacts with crypt cells.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Methotrexate is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for leukemia and other malignancies. The efficacy of this drug is often limited by mucositis and intestinal injury, which are the major causes of morbidity in children and adults. AIM: The present study investigates whether melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, could have a protective effect. METHOD: Rats were pretreated with melatonin (20 and 40 mg/kg body weight) daily 1 h before methotrexate (7 mg/kg body weight) administration for three consecutive days. After the final dose of methotrexate, the rats were sacrificed and the small intestine was used for light microscopy and biochemical assays. Intestinal homogenates were used for assay of oxidative stress parameters malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl content, and myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil infiltration as well as for the activities of the antioxidant enzymes. RESULT: Pretreatment with melatonin had a dose-dependent protective effect on methotrexate (MTX)-induced alterations in small intestinal morphology. Morphology was saved to some extent with 20 mg melatonin pretreatment and near normal morphology was achieved with 40 mg melatonin pretreatment. Biochemically, pretreatment with melatonin significantly attenuated MTX-induced oxidative stress (P < 0.01 for MDA, P < 0.001 for protein carbonyl content) and restored the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase P < 0.05, superoxide dismutase P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The results of the present study demonstrate that supplementation by exogenous melatonin significantly reduces MTX-induced small intestinal damage, indicating that it may be beneficial in ameliorating MTX-induced enteritis in humans.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 10/2012; · 2.26 Impact Factor
Article: Intervention of alpha-lipoic acid ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity: A study in rat intestine.V P Dadhania, D N Tripathi, A Vikram, P Ramarao, G B JenaABSTRACT: Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-metabolite, widely used in the cancer chemotherapy and rheumatoid arthritis. However, its long-term clinical use is restricted on account of its severe intestinal toxicity. The present study was aimed to investigate the intestinal toxicity of MTX and the possible protec... [m[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-metabolite, widely used in the cancer chemotherapy and rheumatoid arthritis. However, its long-term clinical use is restricted on account of its severe intestinal toxicity. The present study was aimed to investigate the intestinal toxicity of MTX and the possible protec...Chemico-biological interactions. 01/2009; 183(1-11/2009):85-97.
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ABSTRACT: The most important side effect of methotrexate (MTX) is mucositis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of turmeric extract on intestinal damage and oxidative stress in rats receiving methotrexate. Experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats divided into six groups. First group received normal saline orally, the second group received turmeric extract (100 mg·kg(-1)) orally for 30 days, the third group received turmeric extract (200 mg·kg(-1)) orally for 30 days, the fourth group received a single dose of methotrexate (20 mg·kg(-1)) i.p. at day 30, the fifth group received turmeric extract (100 mg·kg(-1)) orally for 30 days and a single dose of methotrexate (20 mg·kg(-1)) i.p. at day 30, and the sixth group received turmeric extract (200 mg·kg(-1)) orally for 30 days and single dose of methotrexate (20 mg·kg(-1)) i.p. at day 30. Four days after methotrexate injection, animals were anesthetized, blood samples were taken to determine total antioxidant status (TAS) and jejunum samples were taken for glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxidase dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aldehyde malondialdehyde (MDA), and histopathological assessment. Microscopic evaluation from intestinal tissues of the MTX treated group, showed severe villus shortening and blunting, inflammatory cell infiltration and hemorrhage in lamina propria, along with epithlial cell necrosis. Levels of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT decreased in the MTX received group, but increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the turmeric + MTX groups. MTX increased lipid peroxidation, however, turmeric decreased peroxidation significantly (P < 0.05). These results suggest that turmeric extract may protect the small intestine of rats from methotrexate-induced damage. Turmeric effects could result from its antioxidant properties.Chinese journal of natural medicines. 09/2013; 11(5):477-83.