Effect of aged garlic extract against methotrexate-induced damage to the small intestine in rats

Department of Histology, Gaziantep University Medical School, Gaziantep, Turkey.
Phytotherapy Research (Impact Factor: 2.66). 06/2006; 20(6):504-10. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1896
Source: PubMed


Methotrexate (MTX) chemotherapy is often accompanied by side effects such as gastrointestinal ulceration and diarrhea. The aim of this study was to examine histologically whether an aged garlic extract (AGE) had a protective effect on the small intestine of rats with MTX-induced damage. Forty male Wistar albino rats were randomized into experimental and control groups and divided into four groups of ten animals. To the first group, MTX was applied as a single dose (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. To the second group, in addition to MTX application, AGE (250 mg/kg) was administered orally every day at the same time by intragastric intubation until the rats were killed. To the third group, AGE only was given. The fourth group was the control. All animals were killed 4 days after the intraperitoneal injection of MTX for histopathologic analysis and tissue MDA levels. Before killing, intracardiac blood was obtained from each animal to perform biochemical analysis (plasma lactate level). MTX was found to lead to damage in the jejunal tissues and to increase the MDA and lactate levels in the plasma. Administration of the AGE decreased the severity of jejunal damage, but increased MDA and lactate levels caused by MTX treatment on the other hand. These results suggest that AGE may protect the small intestine of rats from MTX-induced damage. Thus this study substantiated the thought that the protective effect of AGE is derived from the manner in which it interacts with crypt cells.

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Available from: Ahmet Celik, Nov 20, 2014
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    • "Growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 and keratinocyte growth factor were reported to protect mice from gastrointestinal injury by stimulating growth of the damaged intestine [10], [11]. Other studies using vitamin A [6], [12], aged garlic extract (AGE) [8], apricot, beta-carotene [13], melatonin [14] and prostaglandins [15], showed protective effect on the MTX-induced damages to the small intestine in rats. "
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    ABSTRACT: High-dose chemotherapy using methotrexate (MTX) frequently induces side effects such as mucositis that leads to intestinal damage and diarrhea. Several natural compounds have been demonstrated of their effectiveness in protecting intestinal epithelial cells from these adverse effects. In this paper, we investigated the protection mechanism of lutein against MTX-induced damage in IEC-6 cells originating from the rat jejunum crypt. The cell viability, induced-apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and mitochondrial membrane potential in IEC-6 cells under MTX treatment were examined in the presence or absence of lutein. Expression level of Bcl2, Bad and ROS scavenging enzymes (including SOD, catalase and Prdx1) were detected by quantitative RT-PCR. The cell viability of IEC-6 cells exposed to MTX was decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MTX induces mitochondrial membrane potential loss, ROS generation and caspase 3 activation in IEC-6 cells. The cytotoxicity of MTX was reduced in IEC-6 cells by the 24 h pre-treatment of lutein. We found that pre-treatment of lutein significantly reduces MTX-induced ROS and apoptosis. The expression of SOD was up-regulated by the pre-treatment of lutein in the MTX-treated IEC-6 cells. These results indicated that lutein can protect IEC-6 cells from the chemo-drugs induced damage through increasing ROS scavenging ability. The MTX-induced apoptosis of IEC-6 cells was shown to be repressed by the pre-treatment of lutein, which may represent a promising adjunct to conventional chemotherapy for preventing intestinal damages.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e72553. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072553 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "These damages may be reduced by antioxidant agents. As previously reported, protective effects of various antioxidants, such as curcumin19, aged garlic extract20 and N-acetylcysteine17, have been shown in MTX-induced small intestinal damage. MDA is frequently used in the measurement of lipid peroxide levels and correlates with the degree of lipid peroxidation. "
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    ABSTRACT: To study the effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced small intestinal damage in mice and the underlying mechanisms. BALB/c mice were used for in vivo study. The mice were administered with Gl-PS (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, ig) for 10 d, and injected with MTX (50 mg/kg, ip) on d 7 and 8 to induce intestinal damage, and then sacrificed on d 11 for morphological study and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) measurements. Before sacrificing, blood samples were collected to analyze immunoglobulin A (IgA). Rat intestinal IEC-6 cells were used for in vitro study. Cell proliferation and migration were assessed using MTT method and an in vitro wounding model, respectively. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) protein expression was determined using ELISA assay. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and c-Myc mRNA expression profiles were determined using RT-PCR. MTX treatment caused severe mucosal damage, significantly increased small intestine MDA levels, and decreased SOD and serum IgA levels in BALB/c mice. Gl-PS (100 and 200 mg/kg) markedly reversed the MTX effects. In IEC-6 cells, Gl-PS (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/mL) significantly stimulated the cell proliferation. Furthermore, Gl-PS (10 μg/mL) significantly stimulated the cell migration. In addition, Gl-PS (10 and 20 μg/mL) significantly increased the expression of ODC and c-Myc mRNAs. However, Gl-PS (up to 20 μg/mL) had no effect on the expression of TGFβ protein. The results suggest that Gl-PS protects small intestine against MTX-induced injury via induction of epithelial cell proliferation and migration.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2011; 32(12):1505-12. DOI:10.1038/aps.2011.126 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Garlic (Alllium sativum L., Fam Liliaceae) is used medicinally mainly for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and prevention of arteriosclerosis. Clinical trials have consistently shown that "garlic breath" and body odor are the most common (and well-documented) complaints associated to garlic intake. Case reports have highlighted the possibility that garlic use may cause allergic reactions (allergic contact dermatitis, generalized urticaria, angiedema, pemphigus, anaphylaxis and photoallergy), alteration of platelet function and coagulation (with a possible risk of bleeding), and burns (when fresh garlic is applied on the skin, particularly under occlusive dressings). Consumption of garlic by nursing mothers modifies their infant's behavior during breast-feeding. Finally, garlic may enhance the pharmacological effect of anticoagulants (e. g. warfarin, fluindione) and reduce the efficacy of anti-AIDS drugs (i. e. saquinavir).
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 11/2007; 51(11):1386-97. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200700072 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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