Endogenous interleukin (IL)-1 alpha and IL-1 beta are crucial for host defense against disseminated candidiasis.
ABSTRACT Interleukin (IL)-1 alpha and IL-1 beta are protective proinflammatory cytokines involved in host defense against Candida albicans. It is, however, unknown whether they provide protection through similar mechanisms. We investigated the effect of endogenous IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta on disseminated C. albicans infection.
Mice deficient in the genes encoding IL-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha-/-), IL-1 beta (IL-1 beta-/-), or both molecules (IL-1 alpha-/- beta-/-) were used. Survival and C. albicans outgrowth in the kidneys was assessed after intravenous injection of C. albicans.
Both mortality and C. albicans outgrowth in the kidneys were significantly increased in IL-1 alpha-/- and IL-1 beta-/- mice, compared with those in control mice, with the IL-1 alpha-/- beta-/- mice being most susceptible to disseminated candidiasis. The host defense mechanisms triggered by IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta differed from one another. IL-1 beta-/- mice showed decreased recruitment of granulocytes in response to an intraperitoneal C. albicans challenge, and generation of superoxide production was diminished in IL-1 beta-/- granulocytes. IL-1 alpha-/- mice had a reduced capacity to damage C. albicans pseudohyphae. Protective type 1 responses were deficient in both IL-1 alpha-/- and IL-1 beta-/- mice, as assessed by production of interferon-gamma by splenocytes in response to heat-killed C. albicans.
Although IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta have differential effects on the various arms of host defense, both cytokines are essential for mounting a protective host response against invasive C. albicans infection.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with elevated anti-glycans antibody response in 60% of CD patients, and 25% of healthy first-degree relatives (HFDRs), suggesting a genetic influence for this humoral response. In mice, anti-glucan antibody response depends on the NLRP3 inflammasome. Here, we explored the effect of mutated CARD8, a component of the inflammasome, on anti-glycans antibody response in human. METHODS: The association between p.C10X mutation (rs2043211) of the CARD8 gene and the levels of anti-glycans antibody response was examined in 39 CD families. The family-based QTDT association test was used to test for the genetic association between CARD8 p.C10X mutation and anti-glycan antibodies in the pedigrees. The difference in antibody responses determined by ELISA was tested in a subgroup of CD probands (one per family) and in a subgroup of HFDRs using the Wilcoxon Kruskal Wallis non-parametric test. RESULTS: The QTDT familial transmission tests showed that the p.C10X mutation of CARD8 was significantly associated with lower levels of antibody to mannans and glucans but not chitin (p=0.024, p=0.0028 and p=0.577, for ASCA, ALCA and ACCA, respectively). These associations were independent of NOD2 and NOD1 genetic backgrounds. The p.C10X mutation significantly associated or displayed a trend toward lower ASCA and ALCA levels (p=0.038 and p=0.08, respectively) only in the subgroup of CD probands. Such associations were not significant for ACCA levels in both subgroups of CD probands and of HFDRs. CONCLUSION: Our results show that ASCA and ALCA but not ACCA levels are under the influence of CARD8 genotype. Alteration of CARD8, a component of inflammasome, is associated with lower levels of antibodies directed to mannans and glucans at least in CD patients.BMC Medical Genetics 03/2013; 14(1):35. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immunity to pathogens critically requires pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) to trigger intracellular signaling cascades that initiate and direct innate and adaptive immune responses. For fungal infections, these responses are primarily mediated by members of the C-type lectin receptor family. In this Review, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of the roles and mechanisms of these multifunctional receptors, explore how these PRRs orchestrate antifungal immunity and briefly discuss progress in the use of these receptors as targets for antifungal and other vaccines.Nature Immunology 09/2012; 13(9):817-22. · 26.20 Impact Factor