Endogenous interleukin (IL)-1 alpha and IL-1 beta are crucial for host defense against disseminated candidiasis.
ABSTRACT Interleukin (IL)-1 alpha and IL-1 beta are protective proinflammatory cytokines involved in host defense against Candida albicans. It is, however, unknown whether they provide protection through similar mechanisms. We investigated the effect of endogenous IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta on disseminated C. albicans infection.
Mice deficient in the genes encoding IL-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha-/-), IL-1 beta (IL-1 beta-/-), or both molecules (IL-1 alpha-/- beta-/-) were used. Survival and C. albicans outgrowth in the kidneys was assessed after intravenous injection of C. albicans.
Both mortality and C. albicans outgrowth in the kidneys were significantly increased in IL-1 alpha-/- and IL-1 beta-/- mice, compared with those in control mice, with the IL-1 alpha-/- beta-/- mice being most susceptible to disseminated candidiasis. The host defense mechanisms triggered by IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta differed from one another. IL-1 beta-/- mice showed decreased recruitment of granulocytes in response to an intraperitoneal C. albicans challenge, and generation of superoxide production was diminished in IL-1 beta-/- granulocytes. IL-1 alpha-/- mice had a reduced capacity to damage C. albicans pseudohyphae. Protective type 1 responses were deficient in both IL-1 alpha-/- and IL-1 beta-/- mice, as assessed by production of interferon-gamma by splenocytes in response to heat-killed C. albicans.
Although IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta have differential effects on the various arms of host defense, both cytokines are essential for mounting a protective host response against invasive C. albicans infection.
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ABSTRACT: The ability of Candida albicans to cause disease is associated with its capacity to undergo morphological transition between yeast and filamentous forms, but the role of morphology in colonisation and dissemination from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains poorly defined. To explore this, we made use of wild type and morphological mutants of C. albicans in an established model of GI tract colonization, induced following antibiotic-treatment of mice. Our data reveal that GI tract colonization favours the yeast form of C. albicans, that there is constitutive low level systemic dissemination in colonized mice that occurs irrespective of fungal morphology, and that colonization is not controlled by Th17 immunity in otherwise immunocompetent animals. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms of pathogenesis and commensalism of C. albicans, and have implications for our understanding of human disease.Cellular Microbiology 10/2014; 17(4). DOI:10.1111/cmi.12388 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fungal infections and diseases predominantly affect patients with deregulated immunity. Compelling experimental and clinical evidence indicate that severe fungal diseases belong to the spectrum of fungus-related inflammatory diseases. Some degree of inflammation is required for protection during the transitional response occurring temporally between the rapid innate and slower adaptive response. However, progressive inflammation worsens disease and ultimately prevents pathogen eradication. The challenge now is to elucidate cellular and molecular pathways distinguishing protective vs. pathogenic inflammation to fungi. In addition to fungal ligands of pattern recognition receptors (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs), several host-encoded proteins, the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are released during tissue injury and activate innate recognition receptors. DAMPs have been shown to regulate inflammation in fungal diseases. The DAMP/receptor for advanced glycation end-products axis integrated with the PAMP/Toll-like receptors axis in the generation of the inflammatory response in experimental and clinical fungal pneumonia. These emerging themes better accommodate fungal pathogenesis in the face of high-level inflammation seen in several clinical settings and point to DAMP targeting as a novel immunomodulatory strategy in fungal diseases.Frontiers in Immunology 09/2012; 3:286. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2012.00286
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ABSTRACT: Fungi are the cause of opportunistic infections, predominantly in immunocompromised individuals although, primary fungal infections can occur in apparently healthy individuals. Successful host defence requires an effective innate and adaptive immune response. Central to host immune responses are the induction of cytokines; the signals which help to activate the innate immune system and which play a central role in directing the development of pathogen-specific immunity. C-type lectins play a central role in the recognition and shaping of immune responses to fungal pathogens, in part, through the induction and modulation of cytokine responses. Understanding which cytokines induce protective responses to these pathogens and how C-type lectins and other receptors direct cytokine production may allow development of novel antifungal therapies. Here we review the C-type lectins, their influence on cytokine production and subsequent immune responses in antifungal immunity.Cytokine 09/2011; 58(1):89-99. DOI:10.1016/j.cyto.2011.08.031 · 2.87 Impact Factor