Impact of hepatitis C virus coinfection on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and outcome in HIV-infected individuals: A Nationwide Cohort Study
ABSTRACT Coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected patients may decrease the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. We determined the impact of HCV infection on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and outcome among Danish patients with HIV-1 infection.
This prospective cohort study included all adult Danish HIV-1-infected patients who started highly active antiretroviral therapy from 1 January 1995 to 1 January 2004. Patients were classified as HCV positive (positive HCV serological test and/or HCV PCR results [443 patients [16%]]), HCV negative (consistent negative HCV serological test results [2183 patients [80%]]) and HCV-U (never tested for HCV [108 patients [4%]]). The study end points were viral load, CD4+ cell count, and mortality.
Compared with the HCV-negative group, overall mortality was significantly higher in the HCV-positive group (mortality rate ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-3.0), as was liver disease-related mortality (mortality rate ratio, 16; 95% CI, 7.2-33). Furthermore, patients in the HCV-positive group had a higher risk of dying with a prothrombin time <0.3, from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related disease, and if they had a history of alcohol abuse. Although we observed no difference in viral load between the HCV-positive and HCV-negative groups, the HCV-positive group had a marginally lower absolute CD4+ cell count.
HIV-HCV-coinfected patients are compromised in their response to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Overall mortality, as well as mortality from liver-related and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related causes, is significantly increased in this patient group.
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ABSTRACT: The DHCS is a cohort of all HIV-infected individuals seen in one of the eight Danish HIV centres after 31 December 1994. Here we update the 2009 cohort profile emphasizing the development of the cohort. Every 12-24 months, DHCS is linked with the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) in order to extract an age- and sex-matched comparison cohort from the general population, as well as cohorts of family members of the HIV-infected patients and of the comparison cohort. The combined cohort is linked with CRS, the Danish Cancer Registry, the Danish National Hospital Registry, the Danish Registry of Causes of Death, the Danish National Prescription Registry, the Attainment Register and the Integrated Database for Labour Market Research to get information on vital status, migration, cancer, hospital contacts, causes of death, dispensed prescriptions, education and employment. Using this design, rates of a range of outcomes have been compared between HIV-infected patients and the comparison cohort, as well as between families of these two cohorts in order to disaggregate the effects of HIV infection and familial/environmental factors. Data can be shared with foreign institutions following approval from the Danish Data Protection Agency. Potential collaborators can contact the study director, Niels Obel (e-mail: email@example.com).International Journal of Epidemiology 07/2014; 43(6). DOI:10.1093/ije/dyu153 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Hepatitis-related liver diseases are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among people with HIV/AIDS taking combination antiretroviral therapy. We assessed the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on HIV outcomes in patients in China. Methods We did a nationwide retrospective observational cohort study with data from the China National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program from 2010–11. Patients older than 18 years starting standard antiretroviral therapy for HIV who had tested positive for HBV and HCV were followed up to Dec 31, 2012. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate survival, and logistic regression models to estimate virological failure, immunological response, and retention in care. Findings 33 861 patients with HIV met eligibility criteria. 2958 (8·7%) participants had HBV co-infection, 6149 (18·2%) had HCV co-infection, and 1114 (3·3%) had triple infection. All-cause mortality was higher in participants with triple infection (adjusted hazard ratio 1·90, 95% CI 1·53–2·37) and HCV co-infection (1·46, 1·25–1·70) than in those with HIV only, but not in those with HBV co-infection (1·06, 0·89–1·26). People with triple infection were also more likely to have virological failure (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·26, 95% CI 1·02–1·56) than were those with HIV only, whereas the difference was not significant for those with HBV co-infection (0·93, 0·80–1·10) or HCV co-infection (1·10, 0·97–1·26). No co-infection was significantly associated with a difference in CD4 cell count after 1 year of treatment. Loss to follow-up was more common among participants with triple infection (OR 1·37, 95% CI 1·16–1·62) and HCV co-infection (1·30, 1·17–1·45), but not HBV co-infection (0·93, 0·82–1·05), than among those with HIV only. Interpretation Screening for viral hepatitis is important in individuals diagnosed as HIV positive. Effective management for viral hepatitis should be integrated into HIV treatment programmes. Long-term data are needed about the effect of hepatitis co-infection on HIV disease progression. Funding The National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention.The Lancet Infectious Diseases 10/2014; 14(11). DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70946-6 · 19.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To estimate annual employment rates and disability retirement rates (DRRs) among HIV-infected individuals and population controls during the period 1996-2011. A population-based cohort study including all HIV-infected individuals born in Denmark and not reporting intravenous (i.v.) drug abuse as a route of HIV infection or diagnosed with hepatitis C infection (n = 2799) and 22 369 individually matched persons from the background population. Study inclusion was 1 January 1996 or HIV diagnosis, which ever came last. Data on employment status and disability pension were extracted from Danish national registries. Employment rate and DRR were estimated in each calendar year after study inclusion for the cohorts included before 1996 (pre-1996), 1996-1999 and 2000-2011. Employment rate in the year of study inclusion increased from 54.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 50.5-59.6] in the pre-1996 cohort to 74.6% (66.9-83.2) and 77.4% (72.8-82.2) in the 1996-1999 and 2000-2011 cohorts, respectively, compared with 85.9-87.2% in the comparison cohorts. Five years from study inclusion, employment rates were 56.1 (51.4-61.1), 66.2 (58.7-74.6) and 70.9% (65.0-77.3) in the pre-1996, 1996-1999 and 2000-2011 cohorts, respectively, compared with 82.5-85.6% in the comparison cohorts. Five years from study inclusion, DRRs were 32.3 (28.9-36.3) in the pre-1996 cohort and decreased to 17.8 (14.1-22.4) and 11.6% (9.4-14.4) in the 1996-1999 and 2000-2011 cohorts, respectively, compared with 5.1-7.2% in the comparison cohorts. After the introduction of HAART, employment rates have increased profoundly among HIV-infected individuals, but have remained lower than in the background population. During the same period, DRRs decreased among HIV-infected individuals, but still remained higher than in the background population.AIDS (London, England) 04/2014; 28(10). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000257 · 6.56 Impact Factor