Article

Serum IgE, tumor EGFR expression and inherited polymorphisms associated with glioma survival

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94102, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 05/2006; 66(8):4531-41. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-4032
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ABSTRACT In population-based glioma patients, we examined survival in relation to potentially pertinent constitutive polymorphisms, serologic factors, and tumor genetic and protein alterations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), MDM2, and TP53. Subjects were newly diagnosed adults residing in the San Francisco Bay Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Area during 1991 to 1994 and 1997 to 1999 with central neuropathology review (n = 873). Subjects provided blood for serologic studies of IgE and IgG to four herpes viruses and constitutive specimens for genotyping 22 polymorphisms in 13 genes (n = 471). We obtained 595 of 697 astrocytic tumors for marker studies. We determined treatments, vital status, and other factors using registry, interview, medical record, and active follow-up data. Cox regressions for survival were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, study series, resection versus biopsy only, radiation, and chemotherapy. Using a stringent P < 0.001, glioma survival was associated with ERCC1 C8092A [hazard ratio (HR), 0.72; 95% confidence limits (95% CL), 0.60-0.86; P = 0.0004] and GSTT1 deletion (HR, 1.64; 95% CL, 1.25-2.16; P = 0.0004); glioblastoma patients with elevated IgE had 9 months longer survival than those with normal or borderline IgE levels (HR, 0.62; 95% CL, 0.47-0.82; P = 0.0007), and EGFR expression in anaplastic astrocytoma was associated with nearly 3-fold poorer survival (HR, 2.97; 95% CL, 1.70-5.19; P = 0.0001). Based on our and others' findings, we recommend further studies to (a) understand relationships of elevated IgE levels and other immunologic factors with improved glioblastoma survival potentially relevant to immunologic therapies and (b) determine which inherited ERCC1 variants or other variants in the 19q13.3 region influence survival. We also suggest that tumor EGFR expression be incorporated into clinical evaluation of anaplastic astrocytoma patients.

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    • "Additional supporting evidence for the inverse association between allergy and glioma is that serum levels of IgE in a clinical trial on the IgE blocking drug omalizumab showed a higher rate of solid tumors in the treated group compared to the control group 41. Furthermore, glioma cases exhibit lower IgE levels than population-based frequency-matched controls 7, and patients with higher IgE levels have a better antitumor defense or less aggressive tumors with weaker anti-immunologic effects 42. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glioma is the most common and believed to be one of the most aggressive tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. Very little information is available on the etiology and pathogenesis of these tumors to date. A significant gap remains in our current understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the genesis, progression and clinical behavior of these tumors. Recently, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in cytokine gene sequences, particularly within the promoter region of these genes, and have been shown to be associated with the development of different types of brain tumors. The present study investigates the association of C-33T SNP in the interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene with systemic IL-4 level and the S503P SNP in the IL-4R gene with the incidence of glioma. Blood samples were collected from 100 histologically confirmed adult patients with glioma, and 30 apparently healthy individuals from the same area. DNA was extracted from each blood sample, and the IL-4 and IL-4R genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with gene-specific primers. Systemic IL-4 concentration was assessed in serum samples from each participant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We observed a negative association between the homozygous genotype (CC) of the SNP C-33T of the IL-4 gene with the incidence of glioma (OR=0.19, 95% CI=0.035-1.02), while the T allele of the SNP demonstrated a significant protective association against glioma. Similarly, the heterozygous (CT) and homozygous mutant (CC) of the SNP S503P of the IL-4R gene demonstrated a significant association with glioma development (OR=0.405, 95% CI=0.17-0.969 and OR=0.147, 95% CI=0.036-0.6 respectively), while the C allele exhibited a highly significant association with protection from glioma formation. These findings suggest that the T allele of the SNP C-33T in the IL-4 gene and the C allele of the SNP S503P in IL-4R may have a protective role against glioma development.
    International journal of medical sciences 08/2014; 11(11):1147-1153. DOI:10.7150/ijms.9412 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    • "Identification of specific glioma antigens is long awaited for the clinical management such as early diagnosis, more objective diagnosis, monitoring treatment response, and for novel therapeutic targets for glioma [2-5]. In the previous study utilizing proteomics, we found several proteins that are overexpressed in high-grade gliomas and some were potentially applicable to serum biomarkers by ability of secretion [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Glioma is the most common primary malignant central nervous system tumor in adult, and is usually not curable due to its invasive nature. Establishment of serum biomarkers for glioma would be beneficial both for early diagnosis and adequate therapeutic intervention. Filamins are an actin cross-linker and filamin C (FLNC), normally restricted in muscle tissues, offers many signaling molecules an essential communication fields. Recently, filamins have been considered important for tumorigenesis in cancers. Methods We searched for novel glioma-associated antigens by serological identification of antigens utilizing recombinant cDNA expression cloning (SEREX), and found FLNC as a candidate protein. Tissue expressions of FLNC (both in normal and tumor tissues) were examined by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Serum anti-FLNC autoantibody level was measured by ELISA in normal volunteers and in the patients with various grade gliomas. Results FLNC was expressed in glioma tissues and its level got higher as tumor grade advanced. Anti-FLNC autoantibody was also detected in the serum of glioma patients, but its levels were inversely correlated with the tissue expression. Serum anti-FLNC autoantibody level was significantly higher in low-grade glioma patients than in high-grade glioma patients or in normal volunteers, which was confirmed in an independent validation set of patients’ sera. The autoantibody levels in the patients with meningioma or cerebral infarction were at the same level of normal volunteers, and they were significantly lower than that of low-grade gliomas. Total IgG and anti-glutatione S-transferase (GST) antibody level were not altered among the patient groups, which suggest that the autoantibody response was specific for FLNC. Conclusions The present results suggest that serum anti-FLNC autoantibody can be a potential serum biomarker for early diagnosis of low-grade gliomas while it needs a large-scale clinical study.
    BMC Cancer 06/2014; 14(1):452. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-452 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    • "Since the 1950s, studies have reported associations between immune-related conditions and brain and other cancers [8, 11–14]. For glioma specifically, the last two decades have yielded multiple studies showing associations between glioma risk and various immunological indicators, such as a history of asthma and allergies [10, 15, 16], the use of antihistamines or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [7,17], immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels [16, 18, 19], antivaricella-zoster virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels [12,20], and functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inflammation-related genes [19, 21, 22]. Cumulatively, the majority of these studies have indicated that, in general, immunological factors that represent heightened levels of inflammation or anticancer immunosurveillance seem to be associated with lower glioma risk, whereas factors that may have immunosuppressive effects (i.e., regular, long-term use of antihistamines) tend to be associated with higher glioma risk. "
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    ABSTRACT: The role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in glioma development and progression remains controversial. The purpose of our study was to assess the potential associations between anti-HCMV antibodies (immunoglobulin G [IgG] and immunoglobulin M [IgM]) and glioma risk and prognosis using data from the Harris County Case-Control Study. Multivariable logistic regression models were utilized to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between glioma status and antibody levels among glioma cases (n = 362) and cancer-free controls (n = 462). Hazard ratios and 95% CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for age, race, and sex, to determine if antibody levels were associated with survival over time among cases. Among IgG-positive participants, increasing anti-HCMV IgG levels were associated with decreasing glioma risk (P for trend = 0.0008), and those with the lowest level of anti-HCMV IgG (<10 U/mL) had the highest glioma risk, controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity (OR: 2.51, 95% CI: 1.42-4.43). Antibody levels were not associated with survival among glioma cases. Our study contributes new evidence toward the potential importance of the direct and indirect effects of HCMV infection in gliomagenesis.
    Cancer Medicine 02/2013; 2(1):57-62. DOI:10.1002/cam4.44
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