Dramatic reorganisation of Trichomonas endomembranes during amoebal transformation: a possible role for G-proteins.

Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, South Kensington, London, UK.
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology (Impact Factor: 2.24). 08/2006; 148(1):99-102. DOI: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2006.02.022
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis is a parabasalian flagellate that is estimated to infect 3% of the world’s population annually. With a 160 ¬megabase genome and up to 60,000 genes residing in six chromosomes, the parasite has the largest genome among sequenced protists. Although it is thought that the genome size and unusual large coding capacity is owed to genome duplication events, the exact reason and its consequences are less well studied. Results: Among transcriptome data we found thousands of instances, in which reads mapped onto genomic loci not annotated as genes, some reaching up to several kilobases in length. At first sight these appear to represent long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), however, about half of these lncRNAs have significant sequence similarities to genomic loci annotated as protein-coding genes. This provides evidence for the transcription of hundreds of pseudogenes in the parasite. Conventional lncRNAs and pseudogenes are expressed in Trichomonas through their own transcription start sites and independently from flanking genes. Expression of several representative lncRNAs was verified through reverse-transcriptase PCR in different T. vaginalis strains and case studies exclude the use of alternative start codons or stop codon suppression for the genes analysed. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that T. vaginalis expresses thousands of intergenic loci, including numerous transcribed pseudogenes. In contrast to yeast these are expressed independently from neighbouring genes. Our results illustrate the effect genome duplication events can have on the transcriptome of a protist. The parasite’s genome is in a steady state of changing and we hypothesize that the numerous lncRNAs could offer a large pool for potential innovation from which novel proteins or regulatory RNA units could evolve.
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    ABSTRACT: Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogential tract where it remains extracellular and adheres to epithelial cells. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Here, we use a combination of methodologies including cell fractionation, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, RNA, proteomic and cytokine analyses and cell adherence assays to examine pathogenic properties of T. vaginalis. We have found that T.vaginalis produces and secretes microvesicles with physical and biochemical properties similar to mammalian exosomes. The parasite-derived exosomes are characterized by the presence of RNA and core, conserved exosomal proteins as well as parasite-specific proteins. We demonstrate that T. vaginalis exosomes fuse with and deliver their contents to host cells and modulate host cell immune responses. Moreover, exosomes from highly adherent parasite strains increase the adherence of poorly adherent parasites to vaginal and prostate epithelial cells. In contrast, exosomes from poorly adherent strains had no measurable effect on parasite adherence. Exosomes from parasite strains that preferentially bind prostate cells increased binding of parasites to these cells relative to vaginal cells. In addition to establishing that parasite exosomes act to modulate host∶parasite interactions, these studies are the first to reveal a potential role for exosomes in promoting parasite∶parasite communication and host cell colonization.
    PLoS Pathogens 07/2013; 9(7):e1003482. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003482 · 8.06 Impact Factor

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