Radiolytic and cellular reduction of a novel hypoxia-activated cobalt(III) prodrug of a chloromethylbenzindoline DNA minor groove alkylator.
ABSTRACT Metabolic reduction can be used to activate prodrugs in hypoxic regions of tumours, but reduction by ionising radiation is also theoretically attractive. Previously, we showed that a cobalt(III) complex containing 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) and cyclen ligands releases 8-HQ efficiently on irradiation in hypoxic solutions [Ahn G-O, Ware DC, Denny WA, Wilson WR. Optimization of the auxiliary ligand shell of cobalt(III)(8-hydroxyquinoline) complexes as model hypoxia-selective radiation-activated prodrugs. Radiat Res 2004;162:315-25]. Here we investigate an analogous Co(III) complex containing the potent DNA minor groove alkylator azachloromethylbenzindoline (azaCBI, 1) to determine whether it releases 1 on radiolytic and/or enzymatic reduction under hypoxia. Monitoring by HPLC, the azaCBI ligand in the Co(III)(cyclen)(azaCBI) complex (2) slowly hydrolysed in aqueous solution, in contrast to the free ligand 1 which readily converted to its reactive cyclopropyl form. Irradiation of 2 (30-50 microM) in hypoxic solutions released 1 with yields of 0.57 micromol/J in formate buffer and 0.13 micromol/J in human plasma. Using bioassay methods, cytotoxic activation by irradiation of 2 at 1 microM in hypoxic plasma was readily detectable at clinically relevant doses (> or = 1 Gy), with a estimated yield of 1 of 0.075 micromol/J. Release of 1 from 2 was also observed in hypoxic HT29 cultures without radiation, with subsequent conversion of 1 to its O-glucuronide. Surprisingly, overexpression of human cytochrome P450 reductase in A549 cells did not increase the rate of metabolic reduction of 2, suggesting that other reductases and/or non-enzymatic reductants are responsible. Thus the cobalt(III) complex 2 is a promising prodrug capable of being activated to release a very potent cytotoxin when reduced by either ionising radiation or cells under hypoxic conditions.
- Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/1986; 29(6):879-87. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We synthesized a 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (5-FdUrd) derivative possessing an indolequinone structure (IQ-FdUrd) to characterize the radiolytic reduction in aqueous solution and the radiation-activated cytotoxicity against EMT6/KU cells under hypoxic conditions. IQ-FdUrd released antitumor agent 5-FdUrd upon hypoxic, but not aerobic, irradiation with the G value of 0.38 x 10(-7) mol J(-1). Laser flash photolysis of IQ-FdUrd in Ar-purged aqueous solution with dimethylaniline as an electron donor gave rise to a transient absorption spectrum characteristic of semiquinone radical anion, which decayed via second order kinetics. It is most likely that bimolecular disproportionation of intermediate semiquinone radicals occurs to release 5-FdUrd. IQ-FdUrd showed enhanced cytotoxicity against EMT6/KU cells in a radiation dose-dependent manner upon hypoxic irradiation. IQ-FdUrd is potentially a prototype compound for new class of radiation-activated antitumor prodrugs that are useful for radiation treatment of hypoxic tumors.Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 06/2005; 15(9):2321-4. · 2.34 Impact Factor
- Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 08/1992; 35(14):2711-2. · 5.61 Impact Factor