Driver experience and cognitive workload in different traffic environments.
ABSTRACT How do levels of cognitive workload differ between experienced and inexperienced drivers? In this study we explored cognitive workload and driver experience, using a secondary task method, the peripheral detection task (PDT) in a field study. The main results showed a large and statistically significant difference in cognitive workload levels between experienced and inexperienced drivers. Inexperienced, low mileage drivers had on average approximately 250 milliseconds (ms) longer reaction times to a peripheral stimulus, than the experienced drivers. It would, therefore, appear that drivers with better training and experience were able to automate the driving task more effectively than their less experienced counterparts in accordance with theoretical psychological models. It has been suggested that increased training and experience may provide attention resource savings that can benefit the driver in handling new or unexpected traffic situations.
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ABSTRACT: Driving performance can deteriorate and become potentially dangerous when someone pays attention to a secondary task at the expenses of the attention needed to the main driving task. We wanted to verify if there were differences on the capacity of novice drivers to detect peripheral lights at the left or right over the front panel, according to their status (team-sport players and non-players). To force them to divide attention, there were several marks in the pavement they had to pass over. An experimental group of non-players was submitted to the Peripheral Vision and Reaction Time (PVRT) Training Program, to verify if it would improve significantly more than the control group. The results show us that team-sport players surpassed in a significant way non-players in the detection of peripheral stimuli, though there were no significant differences on the peripheral reaction time. After the Training Program, the non-players experimental group scored significantly better than the non-trained group, diminishing significantly, also, their peripheral reaction time, showing that it is possible to develop and transfer perceptual skills from perceptual-motor activity to driving that help to diminish the distraction or lack of ability to divide attention between central and peripheral tasks.Advances in Transportation Studies an international Journal. 01/2009; Section B 19:77-84.
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ABSTRACT: In-vehicle dialogue systems demand dialogue management that takes the cognitive workload of the driver into consid-eration. When doing so, it is important to distinguish be-tween two types of cognitive load, namely cognitive load that is driving-induced, i.e. that affects the driving behaviour, or dialogue-induced, i.e. arise from the dialogue itself. In the first case we believe that the dialogue should pause to let the driver concentrate on the driving task, while in the second case the dialogue system should reformulate its question to make the dialogue task easier for the driver. We will present a novel theory of how to do this, and also present findings from a user study made in the DICO project 1 .