Driver experience and cognitive workload in different traffic environments.
ABSTRACT How do levels of cognitive workload differ between experienced and inexperienced drivers? In this study we explored cognitive workload and driver experience, using a secondary task method, the peripheral detection task (PDT) in a field study. The main results showed a large and statistically significant difference in cognitive workload levels between experienced and inexperienced drivers. Inexperienced, low mileage drivers had on average approximately 250 milliseconds (ms) longer reaction times to a peripheral stimulus, than the experienced drivers. It would, therefore, appear that drivers with better training and experience were able to automate the driving task more effectively than their less experienced counterparts in accordance with theoretical psychological models. It has been suggested that increased training and experience may provide attention resource savings that can benefit the driver in handling new or unexpected traffic situations.
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ABSTRACT: This study examines the ability of an event-triggered video system to extend parental involvement into the independent driving phase of newly licensed teen drivers. The system provides both immediate feedback and a 20-second video clip, giving the teen driver and their parent the opportunity to review and learn from their mistakes as well as good responses. The event-triggered video system was placed in the vehicles of 25 teen drivers (ages 16-17) for 57 weeks. The first nine weeks established a within-subject baseline; no parental or system feedback was given during this time. During the next 40 weeks, feedback was provided to the teen driver in the form of a blinking LED on the camera and a weekly report card mailed to the parents. The report showed the driver's weekly and cumulative performance regarding unsafe behaviors and seatbelt use relative to the other participants. The last eight weeks was a second baseline period. Results revealed two distinct groups: one that triggered few events and one that triggered many events. Combining this emerging technology with parental weekly review of safety-relevant incidents resulted in a significant and lasting decrease in events for most of the teens that triggered many events.
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ABSTRACT: There has been recent interest in intelligent vehicle technologies, such as advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs) or in-vehicle information systems (IVISs) that offer a significant enhancement of safety and convenience to drivers and passengers. However, unsuitable design of HMI (Human Machine Interface) must increase driver distraction and workload, which in turn increase the chance of traffic accidents. Distraction in particular often occurs under a heavy driving workload due to multitasking with various electronic devices like a cell phone or a navigation system while driving. According to the 2005 road traffic accidents in Korea report published by the ROad Traffic Authority (ROTA), more than 60% of the traffic accidents are related to driver error caused by distraction. This paper suggests the implementation of vehicle environment to monitor driver and vehicle to reduce the driving workload which is can be used the advanced driver and vehicle management systems (ADVMS). On-road experiment results showed the feasibility of the suggested vehicle environment for driver and vehicle monitoring.
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ABSTRACT: There has been recent interest in intelligent vehicle technologies, such as advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs) or in-vehicle information systems (IVISs), that offer a significant enhancement of safety and convenience to drivers and passengers. However, the use of ADAS- and IVIS-based information devices may increase driver distraction and workload, which in turn can increase the chance of traffic accidents. The number of traffic accidents involving older drivers that are due to distraction, misjudgment, and delayed detection of danger, all of which are related to the drivers’ declining physical and cognitive capabilities, has increased. Because the death rate in traffic accidents is higher when older drivers are involved, finding ways to reduce the distraction and workload of older drivers is important. This paper generalizes driver information device operations and assesses the workload while driving by means of experiments involving 40 drivers in real cars under actual road conditions. Five driving tasks (manual only, manual primarily, visual only, visual primarily, and visual-manual) and three age groups (younger (20–29 years of age), middle-aged (40–49 years of age), and older (60–69 years of age)) were considered in investigating the effect of age-related workload difference. Data were collected from 40 drivers who drove in a real car under actual road conditions. The experimental results showed that age influences driver workload while performing in-vehicle tasks. Key WordsHuman vehicle interface (HVI)–Older drivers–Driving workload–In-vehicle information system (IVIS)–NASA task load index (TLX)–DistractionInternational Journal of Automotive Technology 01/2011; 12(2):265-272. · 0.69 Impact Factor