Driver experience and cognitive workload in different traffic environments.
ABSTRACT How do levels of cognitive workload differ between experienced and inexperienced drivers? In this study we explored cognitive workload and driver experience, using a secondary task method, the peripheral detection task (PDT) in a field study. The main results showed a large and statistically significant difference in cognitive workload levels between experienced and inexperienced drivers. Inexperienced, low mileage drivers had on average approximately 250 milliseconds (ms) longer reaction times to a peripheral stimulus, than the experienced drivers. It would, therefore, appear that drivers with better training and experience were able to automate the driving task more effectively than their less experienced counterparts in accordance with theoretical psychological models. It has been suggested that increased training and experience may provide attention resource savings that can benefit the driver in handling new or unexpected traffic situations.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to analyze the visual search strategies of expert (n=5) and inexperienced drivers (n=5) during a simulated task of driving in laboratory. The ocular movements are recorded with an ASL SE5000 eye tracking system; and the number, time and location of these fixations are analyzed too. The drivers observed a sequence of specific frames of driving, and then they had to respond with a verbal respond after each trial. The results show that the expert and inexperienced group develop different visual search strategies. These differences are the higher time of fixation, independently of location fixation; and even the higher number and time of fixation on relevant stimuli during the driving (vertical signs and vehicles) in the expert group against to other group. Instead, the inexperienced group shows higher number and time on irrelevant stimuli during the driving. There are no differences between groups of drivers on the accuracy of their verbal response, and neither there is any relation between perceptual variables and the accuracy of their responses.Anales de Psicología 01/2013; 29(1):272-279. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous research suggests that drivers change lanes less frequently during periods of heightened cognitive load. However, lane changing behavior of different age groups under varying levels of cognitive demand is not well understood. The majority of studies which have evaluated lane changing behavior under cognitive workload have been conducted in driving simulators. Consequently, it is unclear if the patterns observed in these simulation studies carry over to actual driving. This paper evaluates data from an on-road study to determine the effects of age and cognitive demand on lane choice and lane changing behavior. Three age groups (20–29, 40–49, and 60–69) were monitored in an instrumented vehicle. The 40's age group had 147% higher odds of exhibiting a lane change than the 60's group. In addition, drivers in their 60's were less likely to drive on the leftmost lane compared to drivers in their 20's and 40's. These results could be interpreted as evidence that older adults adopt a more conservative driving style as reflected in being less likely to choose the leftmost lane than the younger groups and less likely to change lanes than drivers in their 40's. Regardless of demand level, cognitive workload reduced the frequency of lane changes for all age groups. This suggests that in general drivers of all ages attempt to regulate their behavior in a risk reducing direction when under added cognitive demand. The extent to which such self-regulation fully compensates for the impact of added cognitive demand remains an open question.Accident Analysis & Prevention 01/2013; 52:125-132. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This research examined the changes in eye movements and driving performance at different intersection types, as a function of age and turn type. The results showed that when making a right turn, older adult drivers tend to spend less time in scanning the forward direction and more time in observing the rightside view than young adult drivers. Also older adult drivers tend to enter and exit the intersection slower than do young adult drivers. These results imply that older adult drivers are exposed to a much higher risk of car accidents than young adult drivers at a four-way intersection. Paradoxically, the results also imply that older adult drivers tend to be more aware of unexpected situations on three-way intersections, compared to young adult drivers. Relevance to industry: This study provides that elderly drivers are not always exposed to dangerous driving situations, but can cope more effectively in hazardous situation depending on the intersection and turn types than young adult drivers.International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 12/2013; · 1.21 Impact Factor