Characterization of the opsonic and protective activity against Staphylococcus aureus of fully human monoclonal antibodies specific for the bacterial surface polysaccharide poly-N-acetylglucosamine.

Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Infection and Immunity (Impact Factor: 4.16). 06/2006; 74(5):2742-50. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.74.5.2742-2750.2006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Carbohydrate antigens are important targets of the immune system in clearing bacterial pathogens. Although the immune system almost exclusively uses antibodies in response to foreign carbohydrates, there is still much to learn about the role of different epitopes on the carbohydrate as targets of protective immunity. We examined the role of acetyl group-dependent and -independent epitopes on the staphylococcal surface of polysaccharide poly-N-acetylated glucosamine (PNAG) by use of human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for such epitopes. We utilized hybridoma technology to produce fully human immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) MAbs from B cells of an individual post-Staphylococcus aureus infection and cloned the antibody variable regions to produce an IgG1 form of each original MAb. Specificity and functionality of the purified MAbs were tested in vitro using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, complement deposition, and opsonophagocytic assays. We found that a MAb (MAb F598) that bound the best to nonacetylated or backbone epitopes on PNAG had superior complement deposition and opsonophagocytic activity compared to two MAbs that bound optimally to PNAG that was expressed with a native level (>90%) of N-acetyl groups (MAbs F628 and F630). Protection of mice against lethality due to S. aureus strains Mn8 and Reynolds further showed that the backbone-specific MAb had optimal protective efficacy compared with the acetate-specific MAbs. These results provide evidence for the importance of epitope specificity in inducing the optimal protective antibody response to PNAG and indicate that MAbs to the deacetylated form of PNAG could be immunotherapeutic agents for preventing or treating staphylococcal infections.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multiresistant nosocomial pathogens often cause life-threatening infections that are sometimes untreatable with currently available antibiotics. Staphylococci and enterococci are the predominant Gram-positive species associated with hospital-acquired infections. These infections often lead to extended hospital stay and excess mortality. In this study, a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies was isolated from a healthy individual by selection of B-cells producing antibodies with high opsonic killing against E. faecalis 12030. Variable domains (VH and VL) of these immunoglobulin genes were amplified by PCR and cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector containing the constant domains of a human IgG1 molecule and the human lambda constant domain. These constructs were transfected into CHO cells and culture supernatants were collected and tested by opsonophagocytic assay against E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (including MRSA). At concentrations of 600 pg/ml, opsonic killing was between 40% and 70% against all strains tested. Monoclonal antibodies were also evaluated in a mouse sepsis model (using S. aureus LAC and E. faecium), a mouse peritonitis model (using S. aureus Newman and LAC) and a rat endocarditis model (using E. faecalis 12030) and were shown to provide protection in all models at a concentration of 4 μg/kg per animal. Here we present a method to produce fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that are opsonic in vitro and protective in vivo against several multiresistant Gram-positive bacteria. The monoclonal antibodies presented in this study are significantly more effective compared to another monoclonal antibody currently in clinical trials.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0118405. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118405 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the leading etiologic agents of implant-related infections. Biofilm formation is the main pathogenetic mechanism leading to the chronicity and irreducibility of infections. The extracellular polymeric substances of staphylococcal biofilms are the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), extracellular-DNA, proteins, and amyloid fibrils. PIA is a poly-β(1-6)-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG), partially deacetylated, positively charged, whose synthesis is mediated by the icaADBC locus. DNA sequences homologous to ica locus are present in many coagulase-negative staphylococcal species, among which S. lugdunensis, however, produces a biofilm prevalently consisting of proteins. The product of icaA is an N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase that synthetizes PIA oligomers from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. The product of icaD gives optimal efficiency to IcaA. The product of icaC is involved in the externalization of the nascent polysaccharide. The product of icaB is an N-deacetylase responsible for the partial deacetylation of PIA. The expression of ica locus is affected by environmental conditions. In S. aureus and S. epidermidis ica-independent alternative mechanisms of biofilm production have been described. S. epidermidis and S. aureus undergo to a phase variation for the biofilm production that has been ascribed, in turn, to the transposition of an insertion sequence in the icaC gene or to the expansion/contraction of a tandem repeat naturally harbored within icaC. A role is played by the quorum sensing system, which negatively regulates biofilm formation, favoring the dispersal phase that disseminates bacteria to new infection sites. Interfering with the QS system is a much debated strategy to combat biofilm-related infections. In the search of vaccines against staphylococcal infections deacetylated PNAG retained on the surface of S. aureus favors opsonophagocytosis and is a potential candidate for immune-protection.
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 02/2015; 5. DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2015.00007 · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies are being developed as therapeutics to complement drugs and vaccines or to fill the gap where no drugs or vaccines exist. These therapeutic antibodies (ThAb) may be especially important for infectious diseases in which there is antibiotic resistance, toxin-mediated pathogenesis, or for emerging pathogens. The unique structure of antibodies determines the specific nature of the effector function, so when developing ThAb, the desired effector functions need to be considered and integrated into the design and development processes to ensure maximum efficacy and safety. Antibody subclass is a critical consideration, but it is noteworthy that almost all ThAb that are licenced or currently in development utilise an IgG1 backbone. This review outlines the major structural properties that vary across subclasses, how these properties affect functional immunity, and discusses the various approaches used to study subclass responses to infectious diseases. We also review the factors associated with the selection of antibody subclasses when designing ThAb and highlight circumstances where different subclass properties might be beneficial when applied to particular infectious diseases. These approaches are critical to the future design of ThAb and to the study of naturally-acquired and vaccine-induced immunity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Immunology 04/2015; 207. DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2015.03.255 · 3.00 Impact Factor


Available from