High incidence of hyperoxaluria in generalized peroxisomal disorders.
ABSTRACT The Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs) are characterized by a generalized loss of peroxisomal functions caused by deficient peroxisomal assembly. Clinical presentation and survival are heterogeneous. Although most peroxisomal enzymes are unstable in the cytosol of peroxisome-deficient cells of ZSD patients, a few enzymes remain stable among which alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). Its deficiency causes primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1, MIM 259900), an inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism characterized by hyperoxaluria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal insufficiency. Despite the normal level of AGT activity in ZSD patients, hyperoxaluria has been reported in several ZSD patients. We observed the unexpected occurrence of renal stones in a cohort of ZSD patients. This led us to perform a study in this cohort to determine the prevalence of hyperoxaluria in ZSDs and to find clinically relevant clues that correlate with the urinary oxalate load. We reviewed medical charts of 31 Dutch ZSD patients with prolonged survival (>1 year). Urinary oxalate excretion was assessed in 23 and glycolate in 22 patients. Hyperoxaluria was present in 19 (83%), and hyperglycolic aciduria in 14 (64%). Pyridoxine treatment in six patients did not reduce the oxalate excretion as in some PH1 patients. Renal involvement with urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis was present in five of which one developed end-stage renal disease. The presence of hyperoxaluria, potentially leading to severe renal involvement, was statistically significant correlated with the severity of neurological dysfunction. ZSD patients should be screened by urinalysis for hyperoxaluria and renal ultrasound for nephrocalcinosis in order to take timely measures to prevent renal insufficiency.
SourceAvailable from: Adriaan J van Gammeren[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An increase in urine calcium compared to the consensus value was observed in some urine samples of the Dutch External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS). It appeared that the increase was due to the addition of oxalate by the EQAS organizers and preanalytical acidification of the samples by some of the participants. Because of this observation, the effect of urine acidification on urine calcium level in EQAS and patient samples with added oxalate was investigated. Twenty-four EQAS urine samples and 20 patient urine samples were subject to recovery measurements of urine calcium before and after addition of sodium oxalate and acidification. Differences in urine calcium between acidified and non-acidified samples up to 30.9% have been observed in EQAS samples with added oxalate. Patient samples show differences up to 80%. Differences between acidified and non-acidified samples are minimal for low calcium oxalate levels but increase with higher levels. Samples without added oxalate show equal urine calcium results between acidified and non-acidified samples. Urine calcium results are decreased in non-acidified samples with an excess of oxalate. In case of hyperoxaluria, acidification of patient urine collections and EQAS samples is recommended for correct urine calcium values.Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 09/2011; 50(2):375-7. DOI:10.1515/CCLM.2011.711 · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glyoxylate detoxification is an important function of human peroxisomes. Glyoxylate is a highly reactive molecule, generated in the intermediary metabolism of glycine, hydroxyproline and glycolate mainly. Glyoxylate accumulation in the cytosol is readily transformed by lactate dehydrogenase into oxalate, a dicarboxylic acid that cannot be metabolized by mammals and forms tissue-damaging calcium oxalate crystals. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, a peroxisomal enzyme in humans, converts glyoxylate into glycine, playing a central role in glyoxylate detoxification. Cytosolic and mitochondrial glyoxylate reductase also contributes to limit oxalate production from glyoxylate. Mitochondrial hydroxyoxoglutarate aldolase is an important enzyme of hydroxyproline metabolism. Genetic defect of any of these enzymes of glyoxylate metabolism results in primary hyperoxalurias, severe human diseases in which toxic levels of oxalate are produced by the liver, resulting in progressive renal damage. Significant advances in the pathophysiology of primary hyperoxalurias have led to better diagnosis and treatment of these patients, but current treatment relies mainly on organ transplantation. It is reasonable to expect that recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of disease will result into better targeted therapeutic options in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metabolic Functions and Biogenesis of peroxisomes in Health and Disease.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2012; 1822(9):1453-64. DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2012.03.004 · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: The primary hyperoxalurias (PH) are rare, but underdiagnosed disorders where the loss of enzymatic activity in key compounds of glyoxylate metabolism results in excessive endogenous oxalate generation. Clinically, they are characterized by recurrent urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. PH type I is the most frequent and most devastating subtype often leading to early end-stage renal failure. Areas covered: Profound overview of clinical, diagnostic, and currently available treatment options with a focus on PH I at different stages of the disease. Discussion of future therapeutic avenues including pharmacological chaperones (small molecules rescuing protein function), gene therapy with safer adenoviral vectors, and potential application of cell-based transplantation strategies is provided. Expert opinion: Due to lack of familiarity with PH and its heterogeneous clinical expression, diagnosis is often delayed until advanced disease is present, a condition, requiring intensive hemodialysis and timely transplantation. Achieving the most beneficial outcome largely depends on the knowledge of the clinical spectrum, early diagnosis, and initiation of treatment before renal failure ensues. A number of preconditions required for substantial improvement in the care of orphan disease like PH have now been achieved or soon will come within reach, so new treatment options can be expected in the near future.Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 11/2012; DOI:10.1517/13543784.2013.741587 · 5.43 Impact Factor