Mediterranean Diet and Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States
Annals of Neurology (Impact Factor: 9.98). 06/2006; 59(6):912-21. DOI: 10.1002/ana.20854
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous research in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has focused on individual dietary components. There is converging evidence that composite dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is related to lower risk for cardiovascular disease, several forms of cancer, and overall mortality. We sought to investigate the association between MeDi and risk for AD.
A total of 2,258 community-based nondemented individuals in New York were prospectively evaluated every 1.5 years. Adherence to the MeDi (zero- to nine-point scale with higher scores indicating higher adherence) was the main predictor in models that were adjusted for cohort, age, sex, ethnicity, education, apolipoprotein E genotype, caloric intake, smoking, medical comorbidity index, and body mass index.
There were 262 incident AD cases during the course of 4 (+/-3.0; range, 0.2-13.9) years of follow-up. Higher adherence to the MeDi was associated with lower risk for AD (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.98; p=0.015). Compared with subjects in the lowest MeDi tertile, subjects in the middle MeDi tertile had a hazard ratio of 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.16) and those at the highest tertile had a hazard ratio of 0.60 (95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.87) for AD (p for trend=0.007).
We conclude that higher adherence to the MeDi is associated with a reduction in risk for AD.

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    • "Diet is a probable risk factor that by modification could possibly reduce or delay the onset of AD [6] [7]. Several epidemiological and clinical studies suggested that adherence to Mediterranean diet improves cognitive function and slows the progression of AD [6] [7] [8]. Daily consumption of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is one of the characteristic elements of a Mediterranean diet [9] [10] [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is one of the main elements of Mediterranean diet. Several studies have suggested that EVOO has several health promoting effects that could protect from and decrease the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the effect of consumption of EVOO-enriched diet on amyloid- and tau- related pathological alterations that are associated with the progression of AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in TgSwDI mice. Feeding mice with EVOO-enriched diet for 6 months, beginning at an age before amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation starts, has significantly reduced total Aβ and tau brain levels with a significant improvement in mouse cognitive behavior. This reduction in brain Aβ was explained by the enhanced Aβ clearance pathways and reduced brain production of Aβ via modulation of APP processing. On the other hand, although feeding mice with EVOO-enriched diet for 3 months, beginning at an age after Aβ accumulation starts, showed improved clearance across the BBB and significant reduction in Aβ levels, it did not affect tau levels or improve cognitive functions of TgSwDI mouse. Collectively, results of this study suggest the long-term consumption of EVOO-containing diet starting at early age provides a protective effect against AD and its related disorder CAA.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.07.022 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    • "We extrapolated AGE content in each category of food by using data from Uribarri and colleagues [17]. For the WHICAP 1992 and 1999 cohort studies, Scarmeas and colleagues indicate the cutoff dietary intake (in grams/day) of each category of food in each MeDi tertile [27]. We used two models to calculate the dietary AGE intake. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Considerable evidence indicates that diet is an important risk-modifying factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence is also mounting that dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are important risk factors for AD. Objective: This study strives to determine whether estimated dietary AGEs estimated from national diets and epidemiological studies are associated with increased AD incidence. Methods: We estimated values of dietary AGEs using values in a published paper. We estimated intake of dietary AGEs from the Washington Heights-Inwood Community Aging Project (WHICAP) 1992 and 1999 cohort studies, which investigated how the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) affected AD incidence. Further, AD prevalence data came from three ecological studies and included data from 11 countries for 1977-1993, seven developing countries for 1995-2005, and Japan for 1985-2008. The analysis used dietary AGE values from 20 years before the AD prevalence data. Results: Meat was always the food with the largest amount of AGEs. Other foods with significant AGEs included fish, cheese, vegetables, and vegetable oil. High MeDi adherence results in lower meat and dairy intake, which possess high AGE content. By using two different models to extrapolate dietary AGE intake in the WHICAP 1992 and 1999 cohort studies, we showed that reduced dietary AGE significantly correlates with reduced AD incidence. For the ecological studies, estimates of dietary AGEs in the national diets corresponded well with AD prevalence data even though the cooking methods were not well known. Conclusion: Dietary AGEs appear to be important risk factors for AD.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 03/2015; · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    • "Dietary patterns have been associated with protective relations to cognitive decline and incident dementia in epidemiological studies [1] [2]. Encouraging support for these findings was recently provided by reports of secondary analyses of two dietary intervention trials. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In a previous study, higher concordance to the MIND diet, a hybrid Mediterranean-Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, was associated with slower cognitive decline. In this study we related these three dietary patterns to incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: We investigated the diet-AD relations in a prospective study of 923 participants, ages 58 to 98 years, followed on average 4.5 years. Diet was assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results: In adjusted proportional hazards models, the second (hazards ratio or HR = 0.65, 95% confidence interval or CI 0.44, 0.98) and highest tertiles (HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.26, 0.76) of MIND diet scores had lower rates of AD versus tertile 1, whereas only the third tertiles of the DASH (HR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.38, 0.97) and Mediterranean (HR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.26, 0.79) diets were associated with lower AD rates. Conclusion: High adherence to all three diets may reduce AD risk. Moderate adherence to the MIND diet may also decrease AD risk.
    Alzheimer's and Dementia 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2014.11.009 · 12.41 Impact Factor
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