The status of biochemical parameters in varying degrees of vitamin D deficiency.
ABSTRACT Vitamin D (Vit D) is an essential element for the regulation of serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase (Alk Ph). Because the Vit D serum level is not usually measured directly, Vit D deficiency is diagnosed indirectly by changes in serum calcium, phosphate, and Alk Ph leves. The current study assessed the status of these biochemical parameters in subjects with different degrees of Vit D deficiency. We selected 1,210 subjects, between 20 and 69 years old, randomly from the Tehran population. Subjects with diseases or medications that modified bone metabolism were excluded from the study. Serum 25(OH) D, calcium, phosphate, Alk Ph, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were measured and the status of these biochemical parameters was compared in subjects with different degrees of Vit D deficiency. Vit D deficiency was diagnosed in 79.6% of the subjects. Different degrees of Vit D deficiency were classified as follows: group 1, severe; group 2, moderate; and group 3, mild. Serum PTH levels in the Vit D-deficient groups were significantly higher than that in group 4 (normal Vit D). Serum calcium and phosphate levels in groups 1 and 2 were significantly lower than those in groups 3 and 4. No significant difference was seen in serum Alk Ph in the groups with different degrees of Vit D deficiency. The sensivity for at least one biochemical variable (calcium, phosphorus, or Alk Ph) for the detection of severe, moderate, and mild Vit D deficiency was 24.2%, 13.8%, and 6%, respectively. When the serum 25(OH) D level was reduced to less than 25 nmol/l (groups 1 and 2), the effects of Vit D deficiency on calcium and phosphate levels were obvious. Therefore, the usual biochemical parameters (calcium, phosphate, Alk Ph) alone do not have sufficient sensitivity to detect mild deficiency of Vit D.
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly, especially in the housebound and in geriatric patients. The establishment of strict diagnostic criteria is hampered by differences in assay methods for 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The synthesis of vitamin D3 in the skin under influence of UV light decreases with aging due to insufficient sunlight exposure, and a decreased functional capacity of the skin. The diet contains a minor part of the vitamin D requirement. Vitamin D deficiency in the elderly is less common in the United States than elsewhere due to the fortification of milk and use of supplements. Deficiency in vitamin D causes secondary hyperparathyroidism, high bone turnover, bone loss, mineralization defects, and hip and other fractures. Less certain consequences include myopathy and falls. A diet low in calcium may cause an increased turnover of vitamin D metabolites and thereby aggravate vitamin D deficiency. Prevention is feasible by UV light exposure, food fortification, and supplements. Vitamin D3 supplementation causes a decrease of the serum PTH concentration, a decrease of bone turnover, and an increase of bone mineral density. Vitamin D3 and calcium may decrease the incidence of hip and other peripheral fractures in nursing home residents. Vitamin D3 is recommended in housebound elderly, and it may be cost-effective in hip fracture prevention in selected risk groups.Endocrine Reviews 09/2001; 22(4):477-501. · 14.87 Impact Factor
- The Lancet 02/1998; 351(9099):305-7. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A competitive protein binding assay for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-H.c.c.) has been used to study rickets and osteomalacia in Asian immigrants to Britain. Compared with levels in a Caucasian control group, serum-25-H.C.C. concentrations were significantly lower in a group of Asians with no clinical or biochemical evidence of rickets or osteomalacia, and were still lower in another group without clinical disease but with raised serum-alkaline-phosphatase concentrations. In a group with overt rickets or osteomalacia 25-H.C.C. was undetectable in all cases. It seems that vitamin-D deficiency is the major factor leading to rickets and osteomalacia in Indian and Pakistani immigrants to Britain.The Lancet 05/1973; 1(7809):907-10. · 39.06 Impact Factor