Calcium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults.
ABSTRACT Metabolic studies suggest calcium may have a role in the regulation of blood pressure. Some epidemiological studies have reported that people with a higher intake of calcium tend to have lower blood pressure. Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have reached conflicting conclusions about whether oral calcium supplementation can reduce blood pressure.
To evaluate the effects of oral calcium supplementation as a treatment for primary hypertension in adults.
We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, ISI Proceedings, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, CAB abstracts, and reference lists of systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) included in the review.
Inclusion criteria were: 1) RCTs comparing oral calcium supplementation with placebo, no treatment, or usual care; 2) treatment and follow-up >/=8 weeks; 3) participants over 18 years old, with raised systolic blood pressure (SBP) >/=140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >/=85 mmHg; 4) SBP and DBP reported at end of follow-up. We excluded trials where: participants were pregnant; received antihypertensive medication which changed during the study; or calcium supplementation was combined with other interventions.
Two reviewers independently abstracted data and assessed trial quality. Disagreements were resolved by discussion or a third reviewer. Random effects meta-analyses and sensitivity analyses were conducted.
We included 13 RCTs (n=485), with between eight and 15 weeks follow-up. The results of the individual trials were heterogeneous. Combining all trials, participants receiving calcium supplementation as compared to control had a statistically significant reduction in SBP (mean difference: -2.5 mmHg, 95% CI: -4.5 to -0.6, I(2 )= 42%), but not DBP (mean difference: -0.8 mmHg, 95% CI: -2.1 to 0.4, I(2) = 48%). Sub-group analyses indicated that heterogeneity between trials could not be explained by dose of calcium or baseline blood pressure. Heterogeneity was reduced when poor quality trials were excluded. The one trial reporting adequate concealment of allocation and the one trial reporting adequate blinding yielded results consistent with the primary meta-analysis.
In view of the poor quality of included trials and the heterogeneity between trials, the evidence in favour of causal association between calcium supplementation and blood pressure reduction is weak and is probably due to bias. This is because poor quality studies generally tend to over-estimate the effects of treatment. Larger, longer duration and better quality double-blind placebo controlled trials are needed to assess the effect of calcium supplementation on blood pressure and cardiovascular outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Magnesium fulfils important roles in multiple physiological processes. Accordingly, a tight regulation of magnesium homeostasis is essential. Dysregulated magnesium serum levels, in particular hypomagnesaemia, are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and have been associated with poor clinical outcomes. In cell culture studies as well as in clinical situations magnesium levels were associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular disease and altered bone-mineral metabolism. Magnesium has also been linked to diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, fatigue and depression, all of which are common in CKD. The present review summarizes and discusses the latest clinical data on the impact of magnesium and possible effects of higher levels on the health status of patients with CKD, including an outlook on the use of magnesium-based phosphate-binding agents in this context.Journal of nephrology 09/2014; · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A DASH (dietary approaches to stop hypertension) dietary pattern rich in fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products with increased dietary protein provided primarily from plant protein sources decreases blood pressure. No studies, however, have evaluated the effects of a DASH-like diet with increased dietary protein from lean beef on blood pressure and vascular health. The aim of this study was to study the effect of DASH-like diets that provided different amounts of protein from lean beef (DASH 28 g beef per day; beef in an optimal lean diet (BOLD) 113 g beef per day; beef in an optimal lean diet plus additional protein (BOLD+) 153 g beef per day) on blood pressure, endothelial function and vascular reactivity versus a healthy American diet (HAD). Using a randomized, crossover study design, 36 normotensive participants (systolic blood pressure (SBP), 116±3.6 mm Hg) were fed four isocaloric diets,: HAD (33% total fat, 12% saturated fatty acids (SFA), 17% protein (PRO), 20 g beef per day), DASH (27% total fat, 6% SFA, 18% PRO, 28 g beef per day), BOLD (28% total fat, 6% SFA, 19% PRO, 113 g beef per day) and BOLD+ (28% total fat, 6% SFA, 27% PRO, 153 g beef per day), for 5 weeks. SBP decreased (P<0.05) in subjects on the BOLD+ diet (111.4±1.9 mm Hg) versus HAD (115.7±1.9). There were no significant effects of the DASH and BOLD diets on SBP. Augmentation index (AI) was significantly reduced in participants on the BOLD diet (-4.1%). There were no significant effects of the dietary treatments on diastolic blood pressure or endothelial function (as measured by peripheral arterial tonometry). A moderate protein DASH-like diet including lean beef decreased SBP in normotensive individuals. The inclusion of lean beef in a heart healthy diet also reduced peripheral vascular constriction.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 19 June 2014; doi:10.1038/jhh.2014.34.Journal of Human Hypertension 06/2014; · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The suitability of recommended calcium intakes has been the subject of debate in recent years. The present work reviews the recommendations currently made for different population groups in Spain and other countries. To date, these recommended intakes have mainly been based on the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone; less attention has been paid to its other roles in health (e. g., its effect on blood pressure, the prevention of cancer or the regulation of body weight), or the interaction of calcium with other nutrients. However, an increasing number of reports highlight the importance of calcium in these other areas - information that should be taken into account when assessing the suitability of recommended calcium intakes. It should also be remembered that the calcium intakes of a large proportion of the population are lower than those recommended. This paper reviews the suitability of current calcium recommendations for different groups of the population and highlights the areas where research is needed to help determine the intakes that would provide the greatest short and long term health benefits.Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 06/2010; 25(3):366-374. · 1.25 Impact Factor