Memantine for dementia.
ABSTRACT Memantine, a low affinity antagonist to glutamate NMDA receptors, may prevent excitatory neurotoxicity in dementia.
To determine efficacy and safety of memantine for people with Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular (VD) and mixed dementia.
The Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group was searched on 8th February 2006. This register contains references from all major healthcare databases and many ongoing trial databases and is updated regularly. In addition, the search engines Copernic and Google were used to identify unpublished trials through inspection of the websites of licensing bodies like the FDA , EMEA and NICE and of companies' websites (Lundbeck, Merz, Forest, Suntori etc) and clinical trials registries.
Double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, randomized trials of memantine in people with dementia.
Data were pooled where possible. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and observed case (OC) analyses are reported.
1. Moderate to severe AD. Two out of three six month studies show a small beneficial effect of memantine. Pooled data indicate a beneficial effect at six months on cognition (2.97 points on the 100 point SIB, 95% CI 1.68 to 4.26, P < 0.00001), activities of daily living (1.27 points on the 54 point ADCS-ADLsev, 95% CI 0.44 to 2.09, P = 0.003) and behaviour (2.76 points on the 144 point NPI, 95% CI 0.88 to 4.63, P=0.004), supported by clinical impression of change (0.28 points on the 7 point CIBIC+, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41, P < 0.0001).2. Mild to moderate AD. Pooled data from three unpublished studies indicate a marginal beneficial effect at six months on ITT cognition (0.99 points on the 70 point ADAS-Cog, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.78, P = 0.01) which was barely detectable clinically (0.13 CIBIC+ points, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.25, P = 0.03) but no effect on behaviour, activities of daily living or OC analysis of cognition.3. Mild to moderate vascular dementia. Pooled data from two six month studies indicated a small beneficial effect of memantine on cognition (1.85 ADAS-Cog points, 95% CI 0.88 to 2.83, P = 0.0002), and behaviour (0.84 95% CI 0.06 to 0.91, P = 0.03) but this was not supported by clinical global measures.4. Patients taking memantine were slightly less likely to develop agitation (134/1739, 7.7% versus 175/1873, 9.3% OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.99, P = 0.04). This effect was slightly larger, but still small, in moderate to severe AD (58/506 [12%] vs 88/499 [18%]; OR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.86, P = 0.005). There is no evidence either way about whether it has an effect on agitation which is already present.5. Memantine is well tolerated.
Memantine has a small beneficial effect at six months in moderate to severe AD. In patients with mild to moderate dementia, the small beneficial effect on cognition was not clinically detectable in those with vascular dementia and was detectable in those with AD. Memantine is well tolerated.
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ABSTRACT: The traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has shown beneficial effects on cognitive decline. Nevertheless, diet-gene interactions have been poorly evaluated. We aimed to investigate diet-gene interaction in the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomized trial. A total of 522 participants (67 ± 6 years at baseline) enrolled in the PREDIMED-NAVARRA trial were randomly allocated to one of three diets: two MedDiets (supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil or nuts) or a low-fat diet. They were evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) after 6.5 years of intervention. Subjects were genotyped for CR1-rs3818361, CLU-rs11136000, PICALM-rs3851179 and Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genes. We studied MedDiet-gene interactions for cognition and assessed the effect of the MedDiet on cognition across different genetic profiles. A significant interaction (p = 0.041) between CLU-rs11136000 and the MedDiet intervention on the MMSE was found with a beneficial effect of MedDiet among carriers of the T minor allele (B = 0.97, 95 % CI 0.45-1.49). Similar effect was observed for CR1-rs3818361, but no significant interaction was observed (p = 0.335). For PICALM-rs3851179, the MedDiet intervention showed a beneficial effect in both genotype groups. No apparent interaction was found for the CDT between intervention and gene variants. Similarly, participants randomly allocated to MedDiet groups, with favorable profiles of CR1, CLU and PICALM genes, significantly improved CDT scores compared to controls with the same genetic profile. Cognitive performance was better for non-ApoE4 and for ApoE4 carriers of MedDiet groups compared to controls, but for CDT performance, we only found statistical significant differences for non-ApoE4 carriers. A MedDiet intervention modulates the effect of genetic factors on cognition. The effect of MedDiet might be greater for subjects with a more favorable genetic profile.Genes & Nutrition 05/2014; 9(3):393. · 3.33 Impact Factor