Memantine for dementia.
ABSTRACT Memantine, a low affinity antagonist to glutamate NMDA receptors, may prevent excitatory neurotoxicity in dementia.
To determine efficacy and safety of memantine for people with Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular (VD) and mixed dementia.
The Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group was searched on 8th February 2006. This register contains references from all major healthcare databases and many ongoing trial databases and is updated regularly. In addition, the search engines Copernic and Google were used to identify unpublished trials through inspection of the websites of licensing bodies like the FDA , EMEA and NICE and of companies' websites (Lundbeck, Merz, Forest, Suntori etc) and clinical trials registries.
Double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, randomized trials of memantine in people with dementia.
Data were pooled where possible. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and observed case (OC) analyses are reported.
1. Moderate to severe AD. Two out of three six month studies show a small beneficial effect of memantine. Pooled data indicate a beneficial effect at six months on cognition (2.97 points on the 100 point SIB, 95% CI 1.68 to 4.26, P < 0.00001), activities of daily living (1.27 points on the 54 point ADCS-ADLsev, 95% CI 0.44 to 2.09, P = 0.003) and behaviour (2.76 points on the 144 point NPI, 95% CI 0.88 to 4.63, P=0.004), supported by clinical impression of change (0.28 points on the 7 point CIBIC+, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41, P < 0.0001).2. Mild to moderate AD. Pooled data from three unpublished studies indicate a marginal beneficial effect at six months on ITT cognition (0.99 points on the 70 point ADAS-Cog, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.78, P = 0.01) which was barely detectable clinically (0.13 CIBIC+ points, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.25, P = 0.03) but no effect on behaviour, activities of daily living or OC analysis of cognition.3. Mild to moderate vascular dementia. Pooled data from two six month studies indicated a small beneficial effect of memantine on cognition (1.85 ADAS-Cog points, 95% CI 0.88 to 2.83, P = 0.0002), and behaviour (0.84 95% CI 0.06 to 0.91, P = 0.03) but this was not supported by clinical global measures.4. Patients taking memantine were slightly less likely to develop agitation (134/1739, 7.7% versus 175/1873, 9.3% OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.99, P = 0.04). This effect was slightly larger, but still small, in moderate to severe AD (58/506 [12%] vs 88/499 [18%]; OR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.86, P = 0.005). There is no evidence either way about whether it has an effect on agitation which is already present.5. Memantine is well tolerated.
Memantine has a small beneficial effect at six months in moderate to severe AD. In patients with mild to moderate dementia, the small beneficial effect on cognition was not clinically detectable in those with vascular dementia and was detectable in those with AD. Memantine is well tolerated.
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ABSTRACT: Neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia can be challenging to patient and carers, and affect the majority of people with dementia at some stage. Symptoms including agitation, aggression, and psychosis may respond to non-pharmacological therapy. If pharmacotherapy is required the family and carers should be informed and involved in defining treatment goals and monitoring progress. The best current evidence is for atypical antipsychotics with two randomised controlled trials supporting the use of risperidone. However, there are concerns about an increased risk of stroke and death from atypical antipsychotics. Other drug classes have less supportive evidence for efficacy, but may be appropriate for specific symptoms. In all cases, attempts should be made to minimise the dose of the drug and cease it entirely after a time. J Pharm Pract Res 2005; 35: 228-34.Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research Volume. ; 35.
Article: Long-term associations between cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine use and health outcomes among patients with Alzheimer's disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To examine in an observational study (1) relationships between cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI) and memantine use, and functional and cognitive end points and mortality in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD); (2) relationships between other patient characteristics and these clinical end points; and (3) whether effects of the predictors change across time. METHODS: The authors conducted a multicenter, natural history study that included three university-based AD centers in the United States. A total of 201 patients diagnosed with probable AD with modified Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores ≥ 30 at study entry were monitored annually for 6 years. Discrete-time hazard analyses were used to examine relationships between ChEI and memantine use during the previous 6 months reported at each assessment, and time to cognitive (MMSE score ≤ 10) and functional (Blessed Dementia Rating Scale score ≥ 10) end points and mortality. Analyses controlled for clinical characteristics, including baseline cognition, function, and comorbid conditions, and presence of extrapyramidal signs and psychiatric symptoms at each assessment interval. Demographic characteristics included baseline age, sex, education, and living arrangement at each assessment interval. RESULTS: ChEI use was associated with delayed time in reaching the functional end point and death. Memantine use was associated with delayed time to death. Different patient characteristics were associated with different clinical end points. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest long-term beneficial effects of ChEI and memantine use on patient outcomes. As for all observational cohort studies, observed relationships should not be interpreted as causal effects.Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 01/2013; · 5.90 Impact Factor