Buprenorphine for the management of opioid withdrawal
ABSTRACT Managed withdrawal is a necessary step prior to drug-free treatment. It may also represent the end point of maintenance treatment.
To assess the effectiveness of interventions involving the use of buprenorphine to manage opioid withdrawal, for withdrawal signs and symptoms, completion of withdrawal and adverse effects.
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, including the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group trials register, Issue 3, 2005), MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2005), EMBASE (January 1985 to August 2005), PsycINFO (1967 to August 2005), CINAHL(1982 to July 2005) and reference lists of articles.
Experimental interventions involved the use of buprenorphine to modify the signs and symptoms of withdrawal in participants who were primarily opioid dependent. Comparison interventions involved reducing doses of methadone, alpha2 adrenergic agonists, symptomatic medications or placebo, or different buprenorphine-based regimes.
One reviewer assessed studies for inclusion and methodological quality, and undertook data extraction. Inclusion decisions and the overall process was confirmed by consultation between all three reviewers.
Eighteen studies (14 randomised controlled trials), involving 1356 participants, were included. Ten studies compared buprenorphine with clonidine; four compared buprenorphine with methadone; one compared buprenorphine with oxazepam; three compared different rates of buprenorphine dose reduction; two compared different starting doses of buprenorphine. (Two studies included more than one comparison.)Relative to clonidine, buprenorphine is more effective in ameliorating the symptoms of withdrawal, patients treated with buprenorphine stay in treatment for longer, particularly in an outpatient setting (SMD 0.82, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.06, P < 0.001), and are more likely to complete withdrawal treatment (RR 1.73, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.47, P = 0.003). At the same time there is no significant difference in the incidence of adverse effects, but drop-out due to adverse effects may be more likely with clonidine. Severity of withdrawal is similar for withdrawal managed with buprenorphine and withdrawal managed with methadone, but withdrawal symptoms may resolve more quickly with buprenorphine. There is a trend towards completion of withdrawal treatment being more likely with buprenorphine relative to methadone (RR 1.30, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.73, P = 0.08).
Buprenorphine is more effective than clonidine for the management of opioid withdrawal. There appears to be no significant difference between buprenorphine and methadone in terms of completion of treatment, but withdrawal symptoms may resolve more quickly with buprenorphine.
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ABSTRACT: Substance abuse or drug addiction is one of the most important health issues in every society, which can lead to physical and mental problems. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of tramadol plus gabapentin versus methadone use in the treatment of opiate withdrawal. Consenting male subjects who fulfilled the DSM-4 criteria for opiate dependence syndrome (opium, residue, and heroin) were randomly assigned in two groups to receive tramadol plus gabapentin or methadone. Assessment tools were Adjective Rating Scale for Withdrawal (ARSW), Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) and Visual Analogue craving Scale (VAS). Fifty-nine subjects were enrolled and evaluated on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 during their 10 days of admission. Twenty-nine participants received methadone and the other 30 received tramadol plus gabapentin for their treatment. Mean (SD) age of the patients in methadone group and tramadol plus gabapentin group were 33.9 (7.1) and 32.4. (8.1), respectively (P = 0.462). The overall ARSW (P value = 0.263) and COWS (P = 0.862) scores between the two groups were comparable. The differences in the VAS score for craving between the two groups was marginally significant (P = 0.057). The highest VAS score was at the third day of admission in both groups and it was generally higher in methadone group. The severity of withdrawal syndrome in two groups was not significantly different. The craving was higher in the group receiving methadone from the second day of admission even though the usage amount was higher in the tramadol plus gabapentin group. The findings of this study suggest that the combination of tramadol plus gabapentin is an efficient method for opioid detoxification.
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ABSTRACT: Prevalence of opioid addiction has alarmingly increased over the recent years. In South Asian region alone there are more than 10 million opioid abusers amounting to 2% of world population. Detoxification remains to be the first step for the successful treatment of opioid addiction. The present study was carried out to compare the relative efficacy and safety of buprenorphine -naloxone and clonidine hydrochloride in the detoxification of opioid-dependents. Present trial was conducted at De- addiction centre of Institute of Mental and Neurosciences (IMNS), GMC Srinagar. Fifty four (54) treatment seeking subjects, 15-50 years of age, fulfilling DSM-1V TR (American Psychiatric association`s Mental Disorders-1V text revision) criteria for opioid dependence were included and randomized into two groups. The groups received either clonidine hydrochloride (Group A) or buprenorphine- naloxone (Bup-Nax) (Group B) for the duration of 10 days. The efficacy of the two drugs in controlling the opioid withdrawal was evaluated by Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale (COWS) and their effect on the desire for the abused substance was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The safety of the two drugs was measured by taking the side effect profile of the two compared drugs into consideration. There was significant difference of COWS-score between the two groups which was evident from day 3 (14.85 ± 3.43 vs. 11.67 ± 2.40, p<0.005) and continued till day 6 (2.56 ± 1.40 vs. 0.30 ± 0.61, p<0.005), for Group A and group B respectively. The effect of two drugs in controlling the craving for the abused substance also showed significant difference from day 2 (66.30 ± 10.80 vs. 47.40 ± 12.90, p<0.005) till day 5 (7.78 ± 6.41 vs. 1.85 ± 6.22, p<0.005), for Group A and Group B respectively. Administration of buprenorphine-naloxone was more efficient in reducing the signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal and in controlling the craving for the abused substance during the first few days of detoxification.
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ABSTRACT: The growing social problem of drug abuse has increased the likelihood that anesthesiologists will find acute or chronic drug users among patients requiring anesthesia for elective or emergency surgery. We must therefore be aware of the effects drugs have on the organism and their possible pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with anesthetic agents in order to prevent complications during surgery and postoperative recovery. Such knowledge is required for the management of abstinence syndrome or overdose, which pose the greatest potential dangers for the hospitalized drug addict.Revista espanola de anestesiologia y reanimacion 01/2011; 58(2):97-109. DOI:10.1016/S0034-9356(11)70008-1