Pharmacological management of pain in chronic pancreatitis
ABSTRACT Pain is the major presenting symptom of chronic pancreatitis. Patients with chronic pancreatitis experience substantial impairments in health-related quality of life. Pain may be considered as the most important factor affecting the quality of life. The pathogenesis of pancreatic pain is poorly understood. The cause of pain in chronic pancreatitis is probably multifactorial. This article discusses the various hypotheses that have been suggested to underlie pain. Special attention is paid to the concept of autonomous central sensitisation and hyperalgesia as a cause of pain. Strict abstinence from alcohol is the first step of chronic pancreatic pain management. As a second step, it is important to exclude treatable complications of chronic pancreatitis, such as pseudocysts. Symptomatic treatment with analgesics is often unavoidable in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and eventually opioids are suitable. Several trials have been performed with pancreatic enzymes, but a meta-analysis demonstrated no significant benefit in terms of pain relief. The treatment of chronic pancreatic pain requires a multidisciplinary approach that tailors the various therapeutic options to meet the need of the individual patient.
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ABSTRACT: Objective. The present study was conducted to determine if depressive symptoms were associated with variability in pain perception and quality of life among patients with nonalcohol-related chronic pancreatitis. Methods. The research design was cross-sectional, and self-report data was collected from 692 patients with nonalcohol-related, intractable pancreatitis. The mean age of the sample was 52.6 (SD = 14.7); 41% of the sample were male. Participants completed the MOS SF12 Quality of Life Measure, the Center for Epidemiological Studies 10-item Depression Scale (CESD), and a numeric rating scale measure of "pain on average" from the Brief Pain Inventory. Results. Depressive symptoms were significantly related to participants' reports of increased pain and decreased quality of life. The mean CESD score of the sample was 10.6 (SD = 6.5) and 52% of the sample scored above the clinical cutoff for the presence of significant depressive symptomology. Patients scoring above the clinical cutoff on the depression screening measure rated their pain as significantly higher than those below the cutoff (P < 0.0001) and had significantly lower physical quality of life (P < 0.0001) and lower mental quality of life (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Although causality cannot be determined based on cross-sectional, correlational data, findings suggest that among patients with nonalcoholic pancreatitis, the presence of depressive symptoms is common and may be a risk factor associated with increased pain and decreased quality of life. Thus, routine screening for depressive symptomology among patients with nonalcoholic pancreatitis may be warranted.11/2012; 2012:978646. DOI:10.1155/2012/978646
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatitis is a disease with high morbidity and mortality. In vitro experiments on pancreatic acini showed that supramaximal but not submaximal cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulation induces effects in the acinar cell that can be correlated with acinar morphological changes observed in the in vivo experimental model of cerulein-induced pancreatitis. The GTPase Rac1 was previously reported to be involved in CCK-evoked amylase release from pancreatic acinar cells. Here, we demonstrate that pretreatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 (100 microM, 2 h) effectively blocked Rac1 translocation and activation in CCK-stimulated pancreatic acini, without affecting activation of its closely related GTPase, RhoA. This specific Rac1 inhibition decreased supramaximal (10 nM) CCK-stimulated acinar amylase release (27.% reduction), which seems to be connected to the reduction observed in serum amylase (46.6% reduction) and lipase levels (46.1% reduction) from cerulein-treated mice receiving NSC23766 (100 nmol h(-1)). The lack of Rac1 activation also reduced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS; 20.8% reduction) and lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH; 24.3% reduction), but did not alter calcium signaling or trypsinogen activation in 10 nM CCK-stimulated acini. In the in vivo model, the cerulein-treated mice receiving NSC23766 also presented a decrease in both pancreatic and lung histopathological scores (reduction in oedema, 32.4 and 66.4%; haemorrhage, 48.3 and 60.2%; and leukocyte infiltrate, 53.5 and 43.6%, respectively; reduction in pancreatic necrosis, 65.6%) and inflammatory parameters [reduction in myeloperoxidase, 52.2 and 38.9%; nuclear factor kappaB (p65), 61.3 and 48.6%; and nuclear factor kappaB (p50), 46.9 and 44.9%, respectively], together with lower serum levels for inflammatory (TNF-alpha, 40.4% reduction) and cellular damage metabolites (LDH, 52.7% reduction). Collectively, these results suggest that pharmacological Rac1 inhibition ameliorates the severity of pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury through the reduction of pancreatic acinar damage induced by pathological digestive enzyme secretion and overproduction of ROS.Experimental Physiology 07/2008; 93(10):1091-103. DOI:10.1113/expphysiol.2008.043141 · 2.87 Impact Factor
Article: Chronic PancreatitisNew England Journal of Medicine 07/1995; 332(22):1482-90. DOI:10.1056/NEJM199506013322206 · 54.42 Impact Factor