FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Surgical staging and treatment of anal carcinoma has been replaced by noninvasive staging studies and combined modality therapy. In this study, we compare computed tomography (CT) and physical examination to [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the staging of carcinoma of the anal canal, with special emphasis on determination of spread to inguinal lymph nodes.
Between July 2003 and July 2005, 41 consecutive patients with biopsy-proved anal carcinoma underwent a complete staging evaluation including physical examination, CT, and 2-FDG-PET/CT. Patients ranged in age from 30 to 89 years. Nine men were HIV-positive. Treatment was with standard Nigro regimen.
[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) detected 91% of nonexcised primary tumors, whereas CT visualized 59%. FDG-PET/CT detected abnormal uptake in pelvic nodes of 5 patients with normal pelvic CT scans. FDG-PET/CT detected abnormal nodes in 20% of groins that were normal by CT, and in 23% without abnormality on physical examination. Furthermore, 17% of groins negative by both CT and physical examination showed abnormal uptake on FDG-PET/CT. HIV-positive patients had an increased frequency of PET-positive lymph nodes.
[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography detects the primary tumor more often than CT. FDG-PET/CT detects substantially more abnormal inguinal lymph nodes than are identified by standard clinical staging with CT and physical examination.
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ABSTRACT: We set out to determine the ability of positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose to detect groin lymph node metastases from vulvar cancer. From January 2000 to August 2001, patients with squamous cell cancer of the vulva undergoing radical excision and lymphadenectomy were offered preoperative positron emission tomography. The imaging and pathologic status of each patient and groin were compared, and the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of positron emission tomography in predicting nodal metastasis were determined. Fifteen patients underwent positron emission tomography prior to exploration of 29 groins. Six patients had positive scans, suggesting metastases in 8 groins. Pathologically, 5 patients had metastases in 9 groins, with positron emission tomography demonstrating metastases in 4 of 5 patients and 6 of 9 groins with disease. On a patient-by-patients basis, positron emission tomography had a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 80%, and negative predictive value of 90% in demonstrating metastases. On a groin-by-groin basis, positron emission tomography had a sensitivity of 67%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 86%, and negative predictive value of 86%. Positron emission tomography was more accurate in detecting extranodal metastases than disease confined within the groin nodes (P = 0.048). Positron emission tomography is relatively insensitive in predicting lymph node metastasis, and a negative study is not a reliable surrogate for a pathologically negative groin. However, the high specificity suggests that positron emission tomography is useful in planning radiation therapy and as an adjunct to lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node dissection.Gynecologic Oncology 05/2002; 85(1):179-84. · 3.93 Impact Factor
- Lancet. 01/1994; 343(8898):636-639.
Article: Management of anal canal cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chemoradiotherapy has replaced radical surgery as the initial treatment of choice for anal canal cancer. The roles of these therapeutic modalities are discussed and recommendations on management of anal canal cancer are made based on currently available evidence. Areas for further studies also are identified. Literature on management of anal canal cancer from January 1970 to July 2003 obtained via MEDLINE was reviewed. Reports on anal margin cancers were excluded. Randomized, prospective, Phase 3 trials in Europe and the United States showed that chemoradiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C was superior in local control, colostomy-free rate, progression-free survival, and cancer-specific survival compared with radiation alone. In larger tumors, the addition of mitomycin C to radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil improves local control, colostomy-free, and disease-free survival but is associated with more acute hematologic toxicity. Chemoradiotherapy, including Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, appeared to be equal or superior to surgery as salvage therapy in patients with residual disease six weeks after initial nonsurgical treatment. To improve treatment outcomes and reduce treatment-related toxicities, further studies are required to elucidate the optimal drug combination and doses, optimal radiation field, total dose, and fraction sizes. Randomized, multicenter trials are needed to define the treatment protocol that provides the highest rate of sphincter preservation with acceptable toxicity. Few studies addressed the treatment of metastatic disease, which remains a major cause of mortality.Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 07/2005; 48(6):1301-15. · 3.34 Impact Factor