Role of oxidative stress on β-amyloid neurotoxicity elicited during impairment of energy metabolism in the hippocampus: Protection by antioxidants

Departamento de Neurociencias, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México AP 70-253, México DF 04510, México.
Experimental Neurology (Impact Factor: 4.7). 09/2006; 200(2):496-508. DOI: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2006.02.126
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Age-associated oxidative stress has been implicated in neuronal damage linked with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to the role of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) in the pathogenesis of AD, reduced glucose oxidative metabolism and decreased mitochondrial activity have been suggested as associated factors. However, the relationship between Abeta toxicity, metabolic impairment, and oxidative stress is far from being understood. In vivo neurotoxicity of Abeta25-35 peptide has been conflicting. However, in previous studies, we have shown that Abeta25-35 consistently induces synaptic toxicity and neuronal death in the hippocampus in vivo, when administered during moderate glycolytic or mitochondrial inhibition. In the present study, we have investigated whether enhancement of Abeta neurotoxicity during these conditions involves oxidative stress. Results show increased lipoperoxidation (LPO) when Abeta is administered in the hippocampus of rats previously treated with the glycolysis inhibitor, iodoacetate. Neuronal damage and LPO are efficiently prevented by vitamin E, while the spin trapper, alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, shows partial protection. Abeta stimulates LPO in synaptosomes, but toxicity is only observed in the presence of metabolic inhibitors. Damage and LPO are efficiently prevented by vitamin E. The present results suggest an interaction between oxidative stress and metabolic impairment in the Abeta neurotoxic cascade.

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    • "Vitamin E: Improve cognitive performance [62] [63] [64] and suppress tau-induced neurotoxicity [65]. β-Carotene: Increase choline acetyltransferase activity [66]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions among older people. Senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are the most hallmarks lesions in the brain of AD in addition to neurons loss. Accumulating evidence has shown that oxidative stress-induced damage may play an important role in the initiation and progression of AD pathogenesis. Redox impairment occurs when there is an imbalance between the production and quenching of free radicals from oxygen species. These reactive oxygen species augment the formation and aggregation of amyloid-β and tau protein hyperphosphorylation and vice versa. Currently, there is no available treatments can modify the disease. However, wide varieties of antioxidants show promise to delay or prevent the symptoms of AD and may help in treating the disease. In this review, the role of oxidative stress in AD pathogenesis and the common used antioxidant therapies for AD will summarize.
    Current Alzheimer research 03/2015; 12(4). DOI:10.2174/1567205012666150325182702 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    • "Earlier studies have suggested that antioxidant treatment could therapeutically cure and prevent neurodegenerative diseases, especially sporadic AD.17,18 Moreover, previous researchers reported that antioxidants such as melatonin, vitamin E, and selegiline can be used to cure AD.74,75,76,77 "
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in memory impairment and neuronal cell death in the brain. Previous studies demonstrated that intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin (STZ) induces pathological and behavioral alterations similar to those observed in AD. Agmatine (Agm) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in central nervous system disorders. In this study, we investigated whether Agm treatment could attenuate apoptosis and improve cognitive decline in a STZ-induced Alzheimer rat model. We studied the effect of Agm on AD pathology using a STZ-induced Alzheimer rat model. For each experiment, rats were given anesthesia (chloral hydrate 300 mg/kg, ip), followed by a single injection of STZ (1.5 mg/kg) bilaterally into each lateral ventricle (5 μL/ventricle). Rats were injected with Agm (100 mg/kg) daily up to two weeks from the surgery day. Agm suppressed the accumulation of amyloid beta and enhanced insulin signal transduction in STZ-induced Alzheimer rats [experimetal control (EC) group]. Upon evaluation of cognitive function by Morris water maze testing, significant improvement of learning and memory dysfunction in the STZ-Agm group was observed compared with the EC group. Western blot results revealed significant attenuation of the protein expressions of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, as well as increases in the protein expressions of Bcl2, PI3K, Nrf2, and γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, in the STZ-Agm group. Our results showed that Agm is involved in the activation of antioxidant signaling pathways and activation of insulin signal transduction. Accordingly, Agm may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline and attenuating apoptosis in AD.
    Yonsei medical journal 05/2014; 55(3):689-99. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.3.689 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    • "In experimental studies vitamin E has been shown to attenuate protein oxidation, ROS formation and neurotoxicity mediated by amyloid beta peptide in primary culture of hippocampal neurons and PC12 cells [177] [178]. In experimental animals toxicity of injected amyloid beta to hippocampus has been shown to be prevented by vitaminE, while in tau transgenic mice, the latter also delays the development of neurodegenerative pathology and attenuates the motor weakness [179] [180]. Early supplementation with vitamin E shows a significant reduction in amyloid beta levels and amyloid deposition in Tg 2576 AD transgenic mice [181]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The elucidation of the intriguing relationship between oxidative stress and Alzheimer's disease is crucial to understand the pathogenesis of the disease as also to design a suitable drug trial with antioxidants against this condition. We begin by reviewing the basic facts about Alzheimer's disease and the chemistry and biology of oxygen free radicals with particular reference to the cellular adaptive response through redox-signalling pathways. The post-mortem evidence of oxidative damage in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients is overwhelming which is also supported by the similar changes in transgenic mice models of this disease. However, the causal relationship of oxidative stress with amyloid beta pathology or the genesis of Alzheimer's disease is not clear. Considering the available evidence the review suggests that the oxidative stress could be an early event in the disease process and may trigger various adaptive responses such as the alterations of amyloid beta metabolism and the activation of stress responsive kinases which can subsequently lead to neuronal degeneration and AD pathology. Further, we have presented a large body of evidence from various studies to highlight the beneficial effects of antioxidants against amyloid beta toxicity or AD pathology in animal or cell based models of AD. The failure of clinical trials with antioxidants against AD has been mentioned and the possible causes of such failures have been analysed.
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