Role of oxidative stress on beta-amyloid neurotoxicity elicited during impairment of energy metabolism in the hippocampus: protection by antioxidants.
ABSTRACT Age-associated oxidative stress has been implicated in neuronal damage linked with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to the role of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) in the pathogenesis of AD, reduced glucose oxidative metabolism and decreased mitochondrial activity have been suggested as associated factors. However, the relationship between Abeta toxicity, metabolic impairment, and oxidative stress is far from being understood. In vivo neurotoxicity of Abeta25-35 peptide has been conflicting. However, in previous studies, we have shown that Abeta25-35 consistently induces synaptic toxicity and neuronal death in the hippocampus in vivo, when administered during moderate glycolytic or mitochondrial inhibition. In the present study, we have investigated whether enhancement of Abeta neurotoxicity during these conditions involves oxidative stress. Results show increased lipoperoxidation (LPO) when Abeta is administered in the hippocampus of rats previously treated with the glycolysis inhibitor, iodoacetate. Neuronal damage and LPO are efficiently prevented by vitamin E, while the spin trapper, alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, shows partial protection. Abeta stimulates LPO in synaptosomes, but toxicity is only observed in the presence of metabolic inhibitors. Damage and LPO are efficiently prevented by vitamin E. The present results suggest an interaction between oxidative stress and metabolic impairment in the Abeta neurotoxic cascade.
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in memory impairment and neuronal cell death in the brain. Previous studies demonstrated that intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin (STZ) induces pathological and behavioral alterations similar to those observed in AD. Agmatine (Agm) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in central nervous system disorders. In this study, we investigated whether Agm treatment could attenuate apoptosis and improve cognitive decline in a STZ-induced Alzheimer rat model. We studied the effect of Agm on AD pathology using a STZ-induced Alzheimer rat model. For each experiment, rats were given anesthesia (chloral hydrate 300 mg/kg, ip), followed by a single injection of STZ (1.5 mg/kg) bilaterally into each lateral ventricle (5 μL/ventricle). Rats were injected with Agm (100 mg/kg) daily up to two weeks from the surgery day. Agm suppressed the accumulation of amyloid beta and enhanced insulin signal transduction in STZ-induced Alzheimer rats [experimetal control (EC) group]. Upon evaluation of cognitive function by Morris water maze testing, significant improvement of learning and memory dysfunction in the STZ-Agm group was observed compared with the EC group. Western blot results revealed significant attenuation of the protein expressions of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, as well as increases in the protein expressions of Bcl2, PI3K, Nrf2, and γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, in the STZ-Agm group. Our results showed that Agm is involved in the activation of antioxidant signaling pathways and activation of insulin signal transduction. Accordingly, Agm may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline and attenuating apoptosis in AD.Yonsei medical journal 05/2014; 55(3):689-99. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by amyloid β (Aβ) deposits, elevated oxidative stress, and apoptosis of the neurons. Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11), a component of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng), has been demonstrated to antagonize the learning and memory deficits induced by scopolamine, morphine and methamphetamine in mice. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PF11 on AD-like cognitive impairment both in mice induced by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42 (410 pmol) and in Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice. It was found that oral treatment with PF11 significantly mitigated learning and memory impairment in mice given Aβ1-42-treated mice for 15 days at doses of 1.6 and 8 mg/kg and APP/PS1 for 4 weeks at a dose of 8 mg/kg as measured by the Morris water maze and step-through tests. In APP/PS1 mice, PF11 8 mg/kg significantly inhibited the expressions of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ1-40 in the cortex and hippocampus, restored the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cortex. It also noticeably improved the histopathological changes in the cortex and hippocampus and downregulated the expressions of JNK 2, p53 and cleaved caspase 3 in the hippocampus. These findings suggested that the inhibitory effect on amyloidogenesis and oxidative stress and some beneficial effects on neuronal functions might contribute to the recognition improvement effect of PF11 in APP/PS1 mice. Cumulatively, the results of the present study indicated that PF11 was implicated the potentials in the therapeutic treatment of AD.Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 03/2013; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is both the cause and consequence of impaired functional homeostasis characterizing human aging. The worsening efficiency of stress response with age represents a health risk and leads to the onset and accrual of major age-related diseases. In contrast, centenarians seem to have evolved conservative stress response mechanisms, probably derived from a combination of a diet rich in natural antioxidants, an active lifestyle and a favorable genetic background, particularly rich in genetic variants able to counteract the stress overload at the level of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. The integration of these factors could allow centenarians to maintain moderate levels of free radicals that exert beneficial signaling and modulator effects on cellular metabolism. Considering the hot debate on the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in promoting healthy aging, in this review we gathered the existing information regarding genetic variability and lifestyle factors which potentially modulate the stress response at old age. Evidence reported here suggests that the integration of lifestyle factors (moderate physical activity and healthy nutrition) and genetic background could shift the balance in favor of the antioxidant cellular machinery by activating appropriate defense mechanisms in response to exceeding external and internal stress levels, and thus possibly achieving the prospect of living a longer life.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(8):16443-72. · 2.46 Impact Factor