Founder effect for the Ala431Glu mutation of the presenilin 1 gene causing early-onset Alzheimer's disease in Mexican families.
ABSTRACT The etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is complex. To date, molecular genetic studies in several families affected with AD have identified three genes associated with highly penetrant early-onset AD: Presenilin 1 (PSEN1), Presenilin 2 (PSEN2) and beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP); and one gene (apolipoprotein E) associated with late-onset AD. Molecular analysis of the PSEN1 gene was performed by direct sequencing of genomic DNA. The possible founder effect was investigated analyzing two highly polymorphic microsatellite markers flanking the PSEN1 gene. Twelve unrelated Mexican families with early-onset AD were analyzed. The Ala431Glu mutation in exon 12 of PSEN1 was found in nine (75%) of these families, which segregated showing autosomal dominant inheritance. Because all families bearing the mutation are from the State of Jalisco (located in Western Mexico), a founder effect was hypothesized. Microsatellite haplotype analysis suggested a common ancestor in these nine kindreds. In conclusion, the Ala431Glu mutation is a prevalent cause of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease in families from the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Genetic evidence supports that it is a founder mutation descending from a single common ancestor. These findings have important implications for prompt diagnosis and genetic counseling for Mexican patients with familial AD from Jalisco.
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ABSTRACT: Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) gene mutations are found in 30 to 70% of familial early onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) cases (onset <60 years). Prevalence of these mutations is highly variable including ethnic differences worldwide. No Peruvian kindred with familial AD (FAD) have been described. Standardized clinical evaluation and cognitive assessment was completed in a Peruvian family with severe EOAD. Clinical course was characterized by very early onset (before age 35 years), progressive cognitive impairment with early memory loss, spatial disorientation and executive dysfunction. We sequenced all exons of PSEN1 in the proband and identified a c.475C>G DNA change resulting in a p.L153V missense mutation in the transmembrane domain 2 of the gene. This mutation is also present in the three additional affected siblings but not in a non-affected family member consistent with segregation of this mutation with the disease. This is the first report of a Peruvian family affected with EOAD associated with a PSEN1 mutation. This same mutation has been reported previously in English and French families, but a novel variants very close to the mutation and ancestry informative markers analysis suggests the mutation might be of Amerindian or African origin in this Peruvian family.Neuroscience Letters 02/2014; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and macular degeneration causing progressive blindness. It accounts for 1 to 11.6 % of spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) cases worldwide and for 7.4 % of SCA7 cases in Mexico. We identified a cluster of SCA7 families who resided in a circumscribed area of Veracruz and investigated whether the high incidence of the disease in this region was due to a founder effect. A total of 181 individuals from 20 families were studied. Four microsatellite markers and one SNP flanking the ATNX7 gene were genotyped and the ancestral origin and local ancestry analysis of the SCA7 mutation were evaluated. Ninety individuals from 19 families had the SCA7 mutation; all were found to share a common haplotype, suggesting that the mutation in these families originated from a common ancestor. Ancestral origin and local ancestry analysis of SCA7 showed that the chromosomal segment containing the mutation was of European origin. We here present evidence strongly suggesting that the high frequency of SCA7 in Veracruz is due to a founder effect and that the mutation is most likely of European origin with greatest resemblance to the Finnish population.Neurogenetics 12/2013; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly and represents an important and increasing clinical challenge in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Mutations in the genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) are responsible for early-onset autosomal dominant AD. The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene has been recognized as a major genetic risk factor for the more common, complex, late-onset AD. Fibrillar deposits by phosphorylated tau are also a key pathological feature of AD. The retromer complex also has been reported to late-onset AD. More recently, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified putative novel candidate genes associated with late-onset AD. Lastly, several studies showed that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood serum of AD patients can be used as biomarkers in AD diagnosis. This review addresses the advances and challenges in determining genetic and diagnostic markers for complex AD pathogenesis.Gene 05/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor