Founder effect for the Ala431Glu mutation of the presenilin 1 gene causing early-onset Alzheimer's disease in Mexican families.
ABSTRACT The etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is complex. To date, molecular genetic studies in several families affected with AD have identified three genes associated with highly penetrant early-onset AD: Presenilin 1 (PSEN1), Presenilin 2 (PSEN2) and beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP); and one gene (apolipoprotein E) associated with late-onset AD. Molecular analysis of the PSEN1 gene was performed by direct sequencing of genomic DNA. The possible founder effect was investigated analyzing two highly polymorphic microsatellite markers flanking the PSEN1 gene. Twelve unrelated Mexican families with early-onset AD were analyzed. The Ala431Glu mutation in exon 12 of PSEN1 was found in nine (75%) of these families, which segregated showing autosomal dominant inheritance. Because all families bearing the mutation are from the State of Jalisco (located in Western Mexico), a founder effect was hypothesized. Microsatellite haplotype analysis suggested a common ancestor in these nine kindreds. In conclusion, the Ala431Glu mutation is a prevalent cause of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease in families from the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Genetic evidence supports that it is a founder mutation descending from a single common ancestor. These findings have important implications for prompt diagnosis and genetic counseling for Mexican patients with familial AD from Jalisco.
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ABSTRACT: This study compares genetic polymorphisms at the D1S80 and HLA-DQA1 loci in three Mexican Mestizo populations from three large states (Nuevo León, Jalisco, and the Federal District). Allele frequency distributions are relatively homogenous in the three samples; only the Federal District population shows minor differences of the HLA-DQA1 allele frequencies compared with the other two. In terms of genetic composition, these Mestizo populations show evidence of admixture with predominantly Spanish-European (50-60%) and Amerindian (37-49%) contributions; the African contribution (1-3%) is minor. Together with the observation that in Nuevo León, the admixture estimates based on D1S80 and HLA-DQA1, are virtually the same as those reported earlier from blood group loci, suggests that DNA markers, such as D1S80 and HLA-DQA1 are useful for examining genetic homogeneity/heterogeneity across Mestizo populations of Mexico. The inverse relationship of the proportion of gene diversity due to population differences (Gst) to within population gene diversity (Hs) is also consistent with theoretical predictions, supporting the use of these markers for population genetics studies.American Journal of Human Biology 01/2002; 14(2):257-63. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Five families are described in which autopsy-confirmed presenile Alzheimer's disease (AD) has occurred in men and women over multiple generations consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. All 5 families are descendants of a group of immigrants known as the Volga Germans who came to the United States between 1870 and 1920. Their ancestors moved from Germany to the southern Volga region of Russia in the 1760s. All 5 American families are descendants of persons originally living in two small adjacent Volga German villages and share several surnames known to have been present in the census records of those villages. Although a single affected common ancestor cannot be identified, it is likely that the AD in these families represents an autosomal dominant gene inherited from one ancestor (the founder effect). This information is of importance in the genetic study of AD in these families because it greatly increases the probability of genetic homogeneity. There are more than 300,000 American descendants of the Volga Germans, and the prevalence of AD has never been studied in this population.Annals of Neurology 02/1988; 23(1):25-31. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein E is immunochemically localized to the senile plaques, vascular amyloid, and neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer disease. In vitro, apolipoprotein E in cerebrospinal fluid binds to synthetic beta A4 peptide (the primary constituent of the senile plaque) with high avidity. Amino acids 12-28 of the beta A4 peptide are required. The gene for apolipoprotein E is located on chromosome 19q13.2, within the region previously associated with linkage of late-onset familial Alzheimer disease. Analysis of apolipoprotein E alleles in Alzheimer disease and controls demonstrated that there was a highly significant association of apolipoprotein E type 4 allele (APOE-epsilon 4) and late-onset familial Alzheimer disease. The allele frequency of the APOE-epsilon 4 in 30 random affected patients, each from a different Alzheimer disease family, was 0.50 +/- 0.06; the allele frequency of APOE-epsilon 4 in 91 age-matched unrelated controls was 0.16 +/- 0.03 (Z = 2.44, P = 0.014). A functional role of the apolipoprotein E-E4 isoform in the pathogenesis of late-onset familial Alzheimer disease is suggested.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/1993; 90(5):1977-81. · 9.74 Impact Factor