Dysregulation of signaling pathways in CD45-deficient NK cells leads to differentially regulated cytotoxicity and cytokine production.
ABSTRACT CD45, a protein tyrosine phosphatase that regulates Src family kinases, is important for regulating T cell and B cell receptor signaling; however, little is known about how CD45 regulates immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-dependent natural killer (NK) cell receptor signaling and the resulting effector functions. NK cells from CD45-deficient mice are relatively competent for ITAM receptor-induced cell-mediated cytotoxicity, yet completely deficient for cytokine secretion after stimulation with ligands to or antibodies against NK1.1, CD16, Ly49H, Ly49D, and NKG2D. This deficiency in cytokine/chemokine production occurs at the level of mRNA expression. After receptor engagement, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation was markedly perturbed, whereas p38 activation was not substantially affected. The pattern and amounts of basal tyrosine phosphorylation were altered in freshly isolated NK cells and were surprisingly and markedly increased in IL-2-expanded NK cells from CD45-/- mice. These findings indicate that CD45-dependent regulation of ITAM-dependent signaling pathways is essential for NK cell-mediated cytokine production but not cytolytic activity.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Arthur Weiss, Aug 25, 2014
SourceAvailable from: Penelope C Kay-Fedorov[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The receptor tyrosine phosphatase CD45 is expressed on the surface of almost all cells of hematopoietic origin. CD45 functions are central to the development of T cells and determine the threshold at which T and B lymphocytes can become activated. Given this pivotal role of CD45 in the immune system, it is probably not surprising that viruses interfere with the activity of CD45 in lymphocytes to dampen the immune response and that they also utilize this molecule to accomplish their replication cycle. Here we report what is known about the interaction of viral proteins with CD45. Moreover, we debate putative interactions of viruses with CD45 in myeloid cells and the resulting consequences—subjects that remain to be investigated. Finally, we summarize the evidence that pathogens were the driving force for the evolution of CD45.Viruses 03/2015; 7(3):1540-1557. DOI:10.3390/v7031540 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) F7 is a receptor present on immune cells including natural killer (NK) cells. It is also expressed on multiple myeloma (MM) cells. This led to development of an anti-SLAMF7 antibody, elotuzumab, showing efficacy against MM. SLAMF7 mediates activating or inhibitory effects in NK cells, depending whether cells express or not the adaptor EAT-2. Since MM cells lack EAT-2, we elucidated the inhibitory effectors of SLAMF7 in EAT-2-negative NK cells, and tested whether these effectors were triggered in MM cells. SLAMF7-mediated inhibition in NK cells lacking EAT-2 was mediated by SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP)-1, which was recruited via tyrosine 261 of SLAMF7. Coupling of SLAMF7 to SHIP-1 required Src kinases, which phosphorylated SLAMF7. Although MM cells lack EAT-2, elotuzumab did not induce inhibitory signals in these cells. This was at least partly due to lack of CD45, a phosphatase required for Src kinase activation. A defect in SLAMF7 function was also observed in CD45-deficient NK cells. Hence, SLAMF7-triggered inhibition is mediated by a mechanism involving Src kinases, CD45 and SHIP-1 that is defective in MM cells. The latter defect might explain why elotuzumab eliminates MM cells by an indirect mechanism, involving activation of NK cells.Molecular and Cellular Biology 10/2014; 35(1). DOI:10.1128/MCB.01107-14 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: NK-derived cytokines play important roles for natural killer (NK) function, but how the cytokines are regulated is poorly understood. CD160 is expressed on activated NK or T cells in humans but its function is unknown. We generated CD160-deficient mice to probe its function. Although CD160(-/-) mice showed no abnormalities in lymphocyte development, the control of NK-sensitive tumors was severely compromised in CD160(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, the cytotoxicity of NK cells was not impaired, but interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion by NK cells was markedly reduced in CD160(-/-) mice. Functionally targeting CD160 signaling with a soluble CD160-Ig also impaired tumor control and IFN-γ production, suggesting an active role of CD160 signaling. Using reciprocal bone marrow transfer and cell culture, we have identified the intrinsic role of CD160 on NK cells, as well as its receptor on non-NK cells, for regulating cytokine production. To demonstrate sufficiency of the CD160(+) NK cell subset in controlling NK-dependent tumor growth, intratumoral transfer of the CD160(+) NK fraction led to tumor regression in CD160(-/-) tumor-bearing mice, indicating demonstrable therapeutic potential for controlling early tumors. Therefore, CD160 is not only an important biomarker but also functionally controls cytokine production by NK cells. © 2015 Tu et al.Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2015; 212(3):415-429. DOI:10.1084/jem.20131601 · 13.91 Impact Factor