Influence of metal exposure history on the bioaccumulation and subcellular distribution of aqueous cadmium in the insect Hydropsyche californica

U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.23). 05/2006; 25(4):1042-9. DOI: 10.1897/05-255R.1
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The influence of metal exposure history on rates of aqueous Cd accumulation, elimination, and subcellular distribution was examined in the aquatic insect Hydropsyche californica. Specimens were obtained from a reference site and a metal-contaminated site and returned to the laboratory where they were continuously exposed to aqueous Cd (518 ng/L, nominal) for 6 d, followed by 9 d of depuration. Rates of Cd accumulation and elimination were similar in insects from the two sites. Efflux rate constants, k((e), ranged from 0.20 to 0.24/d (t 1/2 approximately 3 d). Immediately following exposure, the cytosol accounted for 40% of the body burden in insects from both sites; however, 89 +/- 2% of the cytosolic Cd was associated with metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) in insects from the contaminated site, compared to 60 +/- 0% in insects from the reference site. The concentration of Cd bound to non-MTLPs (representing potentially Cd-sensitive proteins) was significantly greater in the insects from the reference site (134 +/- 7 ng/g) than in those from the contaminated site (42 +/- 2 ng/g). At the end of the depuration period, 90% of the accumulated Cd body burden had been eliminated, and Cd concentrations in MTLPs and non-MTLPs were similar between the sites. Results suggested that differences in exposure history had no influence on the bioaccumulation of Cd, but did affect the concentrations of Cd bound to MTLP during Cd exposure in these insects.

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    • "Species within the genus Hydropsyche (Order: Trichoptera) are particularly useful as biomonitors of metal pollution because they readily accumulate trace metals (thus reflecting their environment) while tolerating high levels of metal exposure (Cain et al., 2006; Luoma and Rainbow, 2008). The recent calibration of community composition data with tissue metal concentrations in Hydropsyche spp. "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite their ecological importance and prevalent use as ecological indicators, the trace element physiology of aquatic insects remains poorly studied. Understanding divalent metal transport processes at the water-insect interface is important because these metals may be essential (e.g. Ca), essential and potentially toxic (e.g. Zn) or non-essential and toxic (e.g. Cd). We measured accumulation kinetics of Zn and Cd across dissolved concentrations ranging 4 orders of magnitude and examined interactions with Ca and Mn in the caddisfly Hydropsyche sparna. Here, we provide evidence for at least two transport systems for both Zn and Cd, the first of which operates at concentrations below 0.8 μmol l(-1) (and is fully saturable for Zn). We observed no signs of saturation of a second lower affinity transport system at concentrations up to 8.9 μmol l(-1) Cd and 15.3 μmol l(-1) Zn. In competition studies at 0.6 μmol l(-1) Zn and Cd, the presence of Cd slowed Zn accumulation by 35% while Cd was unaffected by Zn. At extreme concentrations (listed above), Cd accumulation was unaffected by the presence of Zn whereas Zn accumulation rates were reduced by 58%. Increasing Ca from 31.1 μmol l(-1) to 1.35 mmol l(-1) resulted in only modest decreases in Cd and Zn uptake. Mn decreased adsorption of Cd and Zn to the integument but not internalization. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine and the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor carboxyeosin had no influence on Ca, Cd or Zn accumulation rates, while Ruthenium Red, a Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor, significantly decreased the accumulation of all three in a concentration-dependent manner.
    Journal of Experimental Biology 05/2012; 215(Pt 9):1575-83. DOI:10.1242/jeb.063412 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "Mechanistically, much less is known about the traits that drive loss rate differences among species for a given contaminant, but numerous studies have measured profound differences among species. The rapid elimination of metals by the caddis fly Hydropsyche (Cain et al. 2006) may help explain the observed metal tolerance of this genus. Furthermore, in the case of Cd in aquatic insects, it appears that the elimination capacity of species is not arbitrary, but seems to cluster phylogenetically (Buchwalter et al. 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: A key challenge in ecotoxicology is to assess the potential risks of chemicals to the wide range of species in the environment on the basis of laboratory toxicity data derived from a limited number of species. These species are then assumed to be suitable surrogates for a wider class of related taxa. For example, Daphnia spp. are used as the indicator species for freshwater aquatic invertebrates. Extrapolation from these datasets to natural communities poses a challenge because the extent to which test species are representative of their various taxonomic groups is often largely unknown, and different taxonomic groups and chemicals are variously represented in the available datasets. Moreover, it has been recognized that physiological and ecological factors can each be powerful determinants of vulnerability to chemical stress, thus differentially influencing toxicant effects at the population and community level. Recently it was proposed that detailed study of species traits might eventually permit better understanding, and thus prediction, of the potential for adverse effects of chemicals to a wider range of organisms than those amenable for study in the laboratory. This line of inquiry stems in part from the ecology literature, in which species traits are being used for improved understanding of how communities are constructed, as well as how communities might respond to, and recover from, disturbance (see other articles in this issue). In the present work, we develop a framework for the application of traits-based assessment. The framework is based on the population vulnerability conceptual model of Van Straalen in which vulnerability is determined by traits that can be grouped into 3 major categories, i.e., external exposure, intrinsic sensitivity, and population sustainability. Within each of these major categories, we evaluate specific traits as well as how they could contribute to the assessment of the potential effects of a toxicant on an organism. We then develop an example considering bioavailability to explore how traits could be used mechanistically to estimate vulnerability. A preliminary inventory of traits for use in ecotoxicology is included; this also identifies the availability of data to quantify those traits, in addition to an indication of the strength of linkage between the trait and the affected process. Finally, we propose a way forward for the further development of traits-based approaches in ecotoxicology.
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 04/2011; 7(2):172-86. DOI:10.1002/ieam.105 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    • " . 2000 ) . Some of the mayfly species that disappear have high rates of net bioaccumulation of metals or reduced powers of detoxifica - tion of accumulated metal ( Cain et al . 2004 ) . Other species , such as caddisfly larvae of the genus Hydropsyche , appear to be relatively tolerant of metals and can accumulate significant metal body burdens ( Cain et al . 2006 ) . In a recent study on the Clark Fork River drainage and Silverbow Creek ( Montana , USA ; Luoma et al . 2010 ) , the concentration of Cu accumulated in Hydropsyche spp . was strongly correlated with mayfly richness and abundance as well as total macro - invertebrate taxa richness ( Figure 8 ) . Thus , the atypically high accumulation"
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    ABSTRACT: As part of a SETAC Pellston Workshop, we evaluated the potential use of metal tissue residues for predicting effects in aquatic organisms. This evaluation included consideration of different conceptual models and then development of several case studies on how tissue residues might be applied for metals, assessing the strengths and weaknesses of these different approaches. We further developed a new conceptual model in which metal tissue concentrations from metal-accumulating organisms (principally invertebrates) that are relatively insensitive to metal toxicity could be used as predictors of effects in metal-sensitive taxa that typically do not accumulate metals to a significant degree. Overall, we conclude that the use of tissue residue assessment for metals other than organometals has not led to the development of a generalized approach as in the case of organic substances. Species-specific and site-specific approaches have been developed for one or more metals (e.g., Ni). The use of gill tissue residues within the biotic ligand model is another successful application. Aquatic organisms contain a diverse array of homeostatic mechanisms that are both metal- and species-specific. As a result, use of whole-body measurements (and often specific organs) for metals does not lead to a defensible position regarding risk to the organism. Rather, we suggest that in the short term, with sufficient validation, species- and site-specific approaches for metals can be developed. In the longer term it may be possible to use metal-accumulating species to predict toxicity to metal-sensitive species with appropriate field validation.
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 01/2011; 7(1):75-98. DOI:10.1002/ieam.108 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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