Limb ischemic preconditioning induces brain ischemic tolerance via p38 MAPK.
ABSTRACT It has been reported that limb ischemic preconditioning (LIP) could induce brain ischemic tolerance. In the present study, we investigated the role of p38 MAPK in the induction of brain ischemic tolerance by observing expression of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) MAPK in the hippocampus after LIP and the effect of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB 203580 on the protection of LIP against delayed neuronal death (DND) in the CA1 hippocampus induced normally by brain ischemic insult. The results of Flow cytometry and Western blotting showed that expression of p-p38 MAPK initially increased at 6 h after LIP compared with sham group in the CA1 hippocampus. The increases reached peak at 12 h and lasted to 24 h after LIP. Expression of p-p38 MAPK was also increased in the CA3/dentate gyrus (DG) regions after LIP, but the beginning and peaking times were 1 and 3 days after LIP, which were relatively later than those in the CA1. Histological evaluation showed that LIP protected the CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons against DND induced by global brain ischemic insult for 8 min, suggesting the occurrence of brain ischemic tolerance. Pretreatment with SB 203580 at 30 min before LIP effectively blocked the ischemic tolerance induced by LIP. Together, it could be concluded that activation of p38 MAPK played an important role in the brain ischemic tolerance induced by LIP, and that components of the p38 MAPK cascade might be targets to modify neuronal survival in ischemic tolerance.
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ABSTRACT: Neuroglobin (Ngb) is an O(2)-binding protein localized to cerebral neurons of vertebrates, including humans. Its physiological role is unknown but, like hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytoglobin/histoglobin, it may transport O(2), detoxify reactive oxygen species, or serve as a hypoxia sensor. We reported recently that hypoxia stimulates transcriptional activation of Ngb in cultured cortical neurons and that antisense inhibition of Ngb expression increases hypoxic neuronal injury, whereas overexpression of Ngb confers resistance to hypoxia. These findings are consistent with a role for Ngb in promoting neuronal survival after hypoxic insults in vitro. Here we report that in rats, intracerebroventricular administration of an Ngb antisense, but not sense, oligodeoxynucleotide increases infarct volume and worsens functional neurological outcome, whereas intracerebral administration of a Ngb-expressing adeno-associated virus vector reduces infarct size and improves functional outcome, after focal cerebral ischemia induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. We conclude that Ngb acts as an endogenous neuroprotective factor in focal cerebral ischemia and may therefore represent a target for the development of new treatments for stroke.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2003; 100(6):3497-500. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Focal cerebral ischemia activates intracellular signaling pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38, which may be involved in the process of ischemic brain injury. In this study, the effect of pretreatment with the p38-inhibitor SB203580 on infarct size and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown was investigated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Rats were given SB203580 (n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6) in the right lateral ventricle prior to transient (90 min) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) on the left side. The rats were examined with serial MRI during MCAO, at reperfusion and after 1 and 4 days. The mean infarct size on T2-weighted images after 1 day was significantly higher in the SB203580-treated group than in controls (300 +/- 95 mm3 vs 126 +/- 75 mm3; P < 0.01). Vascular gadolinium leakage, indicating BBB breakdown, was significantly larger in the SB203580-treated group than in controls after 1 day (median leakage score 18.5; range 15-21 vs 6.5; 4-17; P < 0.05) and 4 days (11; 6-15 vs 3.5; 1-9; P < 0.05), although no significant difference was seen initially. Pretreatment with SB203580 may aggravate ischemic brain injury and cerebral vascular leakage in the present model of transient ischemia.Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 11/2003; 108(5):339-45. · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although ischemic stress, including ischemic preconditioning (IP), activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), the relationship between p38 MAPK activation and the underlying cellular mechanisms of cardioprotection by IP is not verified in vivo. We examined the effects of the selective p38 MAPK inhibition on the cardioprotective effect of IP in the open-chest dogs. The coronary artery was occluded 4 times for 5 minutes, separated by 5 minutes of reperfusion (IP) followed by 90 minutes of occlusion and 6 hours of reperfusion. We infused SB203580 into the coronary artery during IP and 1 hour of reperfusion, during IP alone, and during sustained ischemia in the IP group. p38 MAPK activity markedly increased during IP but did not additionally increase at the onset of ischemia and was even attenuated at 15 minutes of sustained ischemia, and heat-shock protein (HSP) 27 was phosphorylated and translocated from cytosol to myofibril or nucleus without affecting total protein level at the onset of ischemia compared with the control group. SB203580 treatment (1 micromol/L) only during IP blunted the infarct size limitation by IP (37.3+/-6.3% versus 7.4+/-2.1% in the IP group, P:<0.01) and attenuated either phosphorylation or translocation of HSP27 during IP. Although the SB203580 treatment throughout the preischemic and postischemic periods had no significant effect on infarct size (33.3+/-9.4%) in this model, treatment with SB203580 only during ischemia partially mimicked the infarct size limitation by IP (26.8+/-3.5%). Thus, transient p38 MAPK activation during ischemic preconditioning mainly mediates the cardioprotection followed by HSP27 phosphorylation and translocation in vivo in the canine heart.Circulation Research 02/2001; 88(2):175-80. · 11.86 Impact Factor