Limb ischemic preconditioning induces brain ischemic tolerance via p38 MAPK.
ABSTRACT It has been reported that limb ischemic preconditioning (LIP) could induce brain ischemic tolerance. In the present study, we investigated the role of p38 MAPK in the induction of brain ischemic tolerance by observing expression of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) MAPK in the hippocampus after LIP and the effect of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB 203580 on the protection of LIP against delayed neuronal death (DND) in the CA1 hippocampus induced normally by brain ischemic insult. The results of Flow cytometry and Western blotting showed that expression of p-p38 MAPK initially increased at 6 h after LIP compared with sham group in the CA1 hippocampus. The increases reached peak at 12 h and lasted to 24 h after LIP. Expression of p-p38 MAPK was also increased in the CA3/dentate gyrus (DG) regions after LIP, but the beginning and peaking times were 1 and 3 days after LIP, which were relatively later than those in the CA1. Histological evaluation showed that LIP protected the CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons against DND induced by global brain ischemic insult for 8 min, suggesting the occurrence of brain ischemic tolerance. Pretreatment with SB 203580 at 30 min before LIP effectively blocked the ischemic tolerance induced by LIP. Together, it could be concluded that activation of p38 MAPK played an important role in the brain ischemic tolerance induced by LIP, and that components of the p38 MAPK cascade might be targets to modify neuronal survival in ischemic tolerance.
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ABSTRACT: Protection of remote ischemic preconditioning on neurocognitive function caused by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion has been investigated in rats. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups - control group (Group C, n=12), bilateral carotid arteries occlusion group (Group B, n=12) and remote ischemic precondition group (Group P, n=12). In Group P, remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) was performed on the right femoral artery with 3 cycles (10 min) of occlusion/perfusion. After 3 cycles of preconditioning, bilateral carotid arteries were occluded immediately for 60 min. In Group B, ischemic insults were conducted without RIPC. Sham surgeries were performed in Group C. Evaluation of memory and learning capacity was performed on days 5-8 after surgery by Morris water maze testing of spatial learning capacity (n=6 for each group). Apoptosis of cells in the hippocampus region was determined by TUNEL tests and Bcl-2 at this region was determined by ELISA 24 h and 9 days after vessel occlusion (n=6 for each group). Neurocognitive tests showed that latency time was significantly longer in Group B than in Group P on day 7 (p=0.016) and day 8 (p=0.036). Moreover, frequency of platform crossings was significant less in group B than in the other 2 groups on day 9. Bcl-2 level was significantly increased in the hippocampal region of rats in Group P on days 1 and 9 after vessel occlusion. TUNEL test showed that apoptosis could be observed at 24 h after occlusion in Group B, but not in Group P and Group C. No apoptosis was observed on day 9. Our results suggest that RIPC can protect neurocognitive function of rats after bilateral carotid occlusions, and that Bcl-2 may play an important role in this protective effect.Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 11/2011; 17(11):BR299-304. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The involvement of extra-cellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1,2), stress kinase p38 and c-Jun NH2 -terminal kinases 1 and 2 (JNK1,2) on Hsp70-upregulation following mild heat shock, and resulting cell protection, was studied on rabbit primary myoblasts. Cells subjected to heat stress (42°C; 60 min) showed a significantly enhanced amount of heat-shock-induced protein 70 (Hsp70), correlating with sustained phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1,2, inhibition of p38 and JNK1,2 activation. Induced Hsp70 did not autocrinally suppress activation of transcription factor c-Jun, suggesting involvement of the latter in the protection of myoblasts following heat shock. The inhibition of stress kinases p38, JNK1,2 and MEK1,2 by SP600125, SB203580 and UO126, respectively, established the involvement of JNK1,2 and p38 as upstream, and ERK1,2 as downstream targets of Hsp70 induction. Moreover, the effect of the MEK1,2 inhibitor UO126 revealed a new pathway of c-Jun activation by ERK1,2 in myogenic heat-stressed stem cells. The presented data show that transient activation of JNK1, JNK2 and p38 is necessary for Hsp70 induction and ensuing cell protection. In conclusion, affecting myogenic stem cell protective mechanisms might be a useful strategy in improving stem cell survival and their expanded application in therapy. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 03/2013; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) initiates intracellular signaling pathway to provide protection, but the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in HPC-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic injuries is a matter of debate. In this study, we found that HPC could reduce 6h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced infarct volume, edema ratio and cell apoptosis, as well as enhancing the up-regulated p38 MAPK phosphorylation (P-p38 MAPK) levels in the peri-infarct region of mice after 6h MCAO. However, intracerebroventricular injection of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 abolished this HPC-induced neuroprotection. HPC significantly increased the translocation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-related protein Bcl-xL from the cytosol to the mitochondria in the peri-infarct region of MCAO mice. Interestingly, the results of reciprocal immunoprecipitation showed that Bcl-xL and P-p38 MAPK were coimmunoprecipitated reciprocally only in the peri-infarct region of HPC and MCAO treated mice, while Bcl-xL and total p38 (T-p38 MAPK), not P-p38 MAPK, could be coimmunoprecipited by each other in the brain of normal control mice. In addition, we found SB203580 significantly decreased P-p38 MAPK levels, and inhibited HPC-induced mitochondria translocation of Bcl-xL in the brain of HPC and MCAO treated mice. Taken together, our findings suggested that P-p38 MAPK mediates HPC-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic injury via mitochondria translocation of Bcl-xL, which might be a key anti-cell apoptotic mechanism of HPC.Brain research 03/2013; 1503:78-88. · 2.46 Impact Factor