Neurogenesin-1 differentially inhibits the osteoblastic differentiation by bone morphogenetic proteins in C2C12 cells.
ABSTRACT Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists regulate the pleiotropic actions of BMPs by binding to BMPs. We previously isolated the Neurogenesin-1 (Ng1) gene and found that Ng1 protein induces neuronal differentiation in the brain. In this study, we found that Ng1 was expressed in the primordial cells of the skeleton and investigated whether Ng1 protein inhibited the BMP action to induce osteoblastic differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts. Interestingly, Ng1 protein inhibited the BMP7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity while it did not inhibit the BMP2-induced activity. All data suggest that Ng1 protein plays an important role in the embryonic bone formation by differentially regulating BMPs.
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ABSTRACT: Chordin-like 1 (CHRDL1) is a secreted bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist expressed in mesenchymal tissues whose function in development of the skeleton has not been examined in detail. Here we show Chrdl1 is dynamically expressed in the early distal limb bud mesenchyme, with expression becoming downregulated as development proceeds. Chrdl1 expression is largely excluded from the critical signaling center of the posterior limb bud, the Zone of Polarizing Activity (ZPA), as has been described for the BMP antagonist Gremlin (GREM1) (Scherz et al., 2004). Unlike Grem1, Chrdl1 is expressed in the hindlimb by a small subset of ZPA cells and their descendants suggesting divergent regulation and function between the various BMP antagonists. Ectopic expression of Chrdl1 throughout the avian limb bud using viral misexpression resulted in an oligodactyly phenotype with loss of digits from the anterior limb, although the development of more proximal elements of the zeugopod and stylopod were unaffected. Overgrowths of soft tissue and syndactyly were also observed, resulting from impaired apoptosis and failure of the anterior mesenchyme to undergo SOX9-dependent chondrogenesis, instead persisting as an interdigital-like soft tissue phenotype. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling were upregulated and persisted later in development, however these changes were only detected late in limb development at timepoints when endogenous Grem1 would normally be downregulated and increasing BMP signaling would cause termination of Shh and FGF expression. Our results suggest that the early stages of the GREM1-SHH-FGF signaling network are resistant to Chrdl1-overexpression, leading to normal formation of proximal limb structures, but that later Bmp expression, impaired by ectopic CHRDL1, is essential for formation of the correct complement of digits.Developmental Biology 06/2013; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have studied the effects of natural medicines on neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells in a cultured medium of C2C12 cells. Derived from mouse myoblasts, the C2C12 cells secrete neurotrophic factors including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). The secretion of these neurotrophins from C2C12 cells stimulate neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells. We have screened a total of 120 samples and found five natural medicines: Trichosanthes Root, Asiasarum Root, Lycium Bark, Sinomenium Stem, and Dictamni radicis Cortex, that enhance the activity of C2C12-cultured medium to stimulate neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells. These natural medicines promoted not only neurite outgrowth but also stabilized the neurite formation in PC12D cells for several days. RT-PCR analysis showed that NGF was significantly increased with Trichosanthes and Lycium Bark. However, BDNF was slightly decreased with Lycium Bark, Sinomenium Stem, and Dictamni radicis Cortex. NT-3 was increased slightly by all of these natural medicines except Sinomenium Stem. All these five natural medicines significantly increased the number and length of neurites in PC12D cells in co-culture with C2C12 cells.Biomedical Research 01/2012; 33(1):25-33. · 1.15 Impact Factor
- The Journal of the Korean Orthopaedic Association 01/2007; 42(4).