Rapid detection of major depression in epilepsy: a multicentre study.
ABSTRACT Depression is a common comorbid disorder in epilepsy but is not routinely assessed in neurology clinics. We aimed to create a rapid yet accurate screening instrument for major depression in people with epilepsy.
We developed a set of 46 items to identify symptoms of depression that do not overlap with common comorbid cognitive deficits or adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. This preliminary instrument and several reliable and valid instruments for diagnosis of depression on the basis of criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV, depression symptom severity, health status, and toxic effects of medication were applied to 205 adult outpatients with epilepsy. We used discriminant function analysis to identify the most efficient set of items for classification of major depression, which we termed the neurological disorders depression inventory for epilepsy (NDDI-E). Baseline data for 229 demographically similar patients enrolled in two other clinical studies were used for verification of the original observations.
The discriminant function model for the NDDI-E included six items. Internal consistency reliability of the NDDI-E was 0.85 and test-retest reliability was 0.78. An NDDI-E score of more than 15 had a specificity of 90%, sensitivity of 81%, and positive predictive value of 0.62 for a diagnosis of major depression. Logistic regression showed that the model of association of major depression and the NDDI-E was not affected by adverse effects of antiepileptic medication, whereas models for depression and generic screening instruments were. The severity of depression symptoms and toxic effects of drugs independently correlated with subjective health status, explaining 72% of variance. Results from a separate verification sample also showed optimum sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power at a cut score of more than 15.
Major depression in people with epilepsy can be identified by a brief set of symptoms that can be differentiated from common adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. The NDDI-E could enable rapid detection and improve management of depression in epilepsy in accordance with internationally recognised guidelines.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose Mood disorders represent a frequent psychiatric comorbidity among patients with epilepsy, having a major impact on their quality of life and contributing considerably to the global burden of the disease. The availability of standardized clinical instruments validated in populations with epilepsy has important implications in terms of diagnosis and treatment. This aimed to validate the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) in adult patients with epilepsy. Methods A consecutive sample of 120 adult outpatients with epilepsy was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MINI) Plus version 5.0.0 and the HRSD. Results Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.824 for the 17-item version and 0.833 for the 21-item version. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.896 and 0.899, respectively, for the two versions. However, the HRSD-17 demonstrated the best psychometric properties compared to the HRSD-21 and, with a cutoff score of 6, showed a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value of 46%, and a negative predictive value of 99%. Conclusions The HRSD proved to be reliable and valid in the epilepsy setting and will stimulate further research in this area.Epilepsy & Behavior 10/2014; 41:122–125. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate factors related to hopelessness in a sample of epileptic patients, including measures of depression and quality of life (QOL). Sixty-nine participants were administered the following psychometric instruments: Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and QOL in Epilepsy (QOLIE)-89. Patients were dichotomized into two categories: those affected by epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures vs those having epilepsy with partial seizures. The groups differed on the QOLIE Role Limitation/Emotional dimension. Patients with generalized seizures reported more limitations in common social/role activities related to emotional problems than patients with other types of epilepsy (89.57 ± 25.49 vs 72.86 ± 36.38; t 63 = -2.16; P < 0.05). All of the respondents reported moderate to severe depression, and 21.7% of patients with generalized seizures and 28.6% of patients with other diagnoses had BHS total scores ≥ 9 indicating a higher suicidal risk. The study did not control for years of the illness. Patients with generalized seizures reported more limitations in common social/role activities related to emotional problems compared to patients with other types of seizures. Patients at increased suicide risk as evaluated by the BHS were older than those who had a lower suicidal risk. Future studies are required to further investigate the impact of hopelessness on the outcome of epileptic patients.World journal of psychiatry. 12/2014; 4(4):141-9.
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ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that can have profound physical, social and psychological consequences. We aimed to assess the clinical predictors of quality of life of people with epilepsy. We recruited 31 patients suffering from epilepsy in this cross-sectional study. Their clinical profile was recorded. Quality Of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31) was used to assess quality of life of our patients. Depression was screened by Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory in Epilepsy (NDDI-E). Among all the clinical variables, only seizure frequency significantly correlated with seizure worry (P=0.002), emotional well-being (P=0.026) and social functions (P=0.013) subscales of QOLIE-31. NDDIE score showed a significant negative correlation with all the subscales of QOLIE-31 except medication effects (P=0.993). A significant positive correlation was also noted between seizure frequency and NDDI-E score (r=0.417, P=0.020). Seizure frequency and depression are the most important predictors of quality of life in epilepsy patients. The management of patients with epilepsy should not only be aimed at just preventing seizures but the treating clinicians should also be cognizant about depression which itself can significantly affect the quality of life of patients.Mental illness. 03/2014; 6(1):5169.