Depression is a common comorbid disorder in epilepsy but is not routinely assessed in neurology clinics. We aimed to create a rapid yet accurate screening instrument for major depression in people with epilepsy.
We developed a set of 46 items to identify symptoms of depression that do not overlap with common comorbid cognitive deficits or adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. This preliminary instrument and several reliable and valid instruments for diagnosis of depression on the basis of criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV, depression symptom severity, health status, and toxic effects of medication were applied to 205 adult outpatients with epilepsy. We used discriminant function analysis to identify the most efficient set of items for classification of major depression, which we termed the neurological disorders depression inventory for epilepsy (NDDI-E). Baseline data for 229 demographically similar patients enrolled in two other clinical studies were used for verification of the original observations.
The discriminant function model for the NDDI-E included six items. Internal consistency reliability of the NDDI-E was 0.85 and test-retest reliability was 0.78. An NDDI-E score of more than 15 had a specificity of 90%, sensitivity of 81%, and positive predictive value of 0.62 for a diagnosis of major depression. Logistic regression showed that the model of association of major depression and the NDDI-E was not affected by adverse effects of antiepileptic medication, whereas models for depression and generic screening instruments were. The severity of depression symptoms and toxic effects of drugs independently correlated with subjective health status, explaining 72% of variance. Results from a separate verification sample also showed optimum sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power at a cut score of more than 15.
Major depression in people with epilepsy can be identified by a brief set of symptoms that can be differentiated from common adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. The NDDI-E could enable rapid detection and improve management of depression in epilepsy in accordance with internationally recognised guidelines.
"The NDDI-E score is determined by assigning scores of 1 to 4 to the categorical responses: " Never " , " Rarely " , " Sometimes " , and " Always or Often " , respectively. These scores from each of the six questions are then summed with a score of 15 or more having a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 90% . The GAD-7 score is determined by assigning scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3, to the categorical responses: " not at all " , " several days " , " more than half the days " , and " nearly every day " , respectively. "
"1. Enhance recognition of psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy: A recent multicenter study administered a 6-item brief assessment tool (NDDI-E = neurological disorders depression inventory for epilepsy) to 205 adult patients with epilepsy. The NDDI-E could enable rapid detection and improve management of depression in epilepsy in accordance with internationally recognized guidelines . In this study, 28.6% of patients with epilepsy in a busy clinical setting screened positive for depression with the NDDI-E . "
"The inventory was found to have good internal consistency and test–retest reliability  . A score of more than 15 on the NDDI-E was found to have 90% specificity, 81% sensitivity , and a predictive value of 0.62 for a diagnosis of major depression , and the NDDI-E was also found to have significant positive correlation with another screening tool for depression, the Patient Health Questionnaire . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
The aims of this service evaluation were to explore the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with epilepsy based on the acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) approach and to assess whether this treatment is likely to be cost-effective.
We conducted an uncontrolled prospective study of consecutive patients with refractory epilepsy referred for outpatient psychological treatment to a single psychotherapist because of emotional difficulties related to their seizure disorder. Participants were referred by consultant neurologists, neuropsychologists, or epilepsy nurses, completed a set of validated self-report questionnaires (Short Form — 12 version 2, Generalized Anxiety Disorder — 7, Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and reported their seizure frequency at referral, the end of therapy, and six months posttherapy. Patients received a maximum of 20 sessions of one-to-one psychological treatment supported by a workbook. Cost-effectiveness was estimated based on the calculation of quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gains associated with the intervention.
Sixty patients completed the prepsychotherapy and postpsychotherapy questionnaires, among whom 41 also provided six-month follow-up data. Patients received six to 20 sessions of psychotherapy (mean = 11.5, S.D. = 9.6). Psychotherapy was associated with significant medium to large positive effects on depression, anxiety, quality of life, self-esteem, and work and social adjustment (ps < .001), which were sustained six months after therapy. The mean cost of the psychotherapy was £445.6, and, assuming that benefits were maintained for at least six months after the end of therapy, the cost per QALY was estimated to be £11,140 (€14,119, $18,016; the cost per QALY would be half this amount if the benefits lasted one year).
The findings of this pilot study indicate that the described psychotherapeutic intervention may be a cost-effective treatment for patients with epilepsy. The results suggest that a randomized controlled trial of the psychotherapy program is justified.
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