Night eating syndrome and winter seasonal affective disorder

Clinique des Maladies Mentales et de l'Encéphale (CMME), Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Université Paris V, René Descartes, France.
Appetite (Impact Factor: 2.69). 08/2006; 47(1):119-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2006.03.159
Source: PubMed


Night eating syndrome (NES) and winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD) share some features such as snacking for high-carbohydrate/high-fat food with increased weight, emotional distress, circadian disturbances, good response to serotoninergic antidepressants (SSRIs) and bright-light therapy. This study assessed the prevalence and socio-demographical and clinical correlates of the NES in a sample of 62 consecutive depressed outpatients with winter seasonal features (DSM-IV criteria). Depression was assessed with the 29 item-HDRS and Sigh-SAD version and with the 7-item depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. The prevalence of NES was low (4.8%). Patients suffering from NES were significantly older with a greater duration of the illness. NES was not related to depression and to Body Mass Index. NES and winter SAD are not overlapping disorders.

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    ABSTRACT: The article reviews the international literature about psychopathological aspects and treatments of Night Eating Syndrome (NES). Studies were found using Medline; data from recent international books and conferences about ED are included, but single case descriptions are not included in the study. NES seems to be consistently related to mood disorders and anxiety. There is a low overlap between other eating disorders, including binge eating disorder (BED), and NES. The relationship between the syndrome and substance abuse is unclear and needs further study. Sleep architecture seems not to be severely altered among those with NES. A limited number of treatment studies for NES have been published or presented. Most of the literature focuses on pharmacological treatment, with fewer psychotherapeutic approaches reported at this time. Larger, multi-site treatment studies would serve to confirm the findings of this first wave of clinical trials.
    Eating and weight disorders: EWD 07/2008; 13(2):54-63. DOI:10.1007/BF03327604 · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Photoperiod, i.e., the relative day-length per 24h, may modulate the metabolic responses to high-fat diet (HFD) and sucrose consumption. To test this hypothesis, hormonal changes, fat accretion and sucrose intake were measured in rats exposed to short- or long-day for 4 weeks and fed with a standard high-carbohydrate low-fat pelleted diet (high-carbohydrate diet (HCD)) or a high-fat, medium-carbohydrate pelleted diet (HFD), with or without free access to 10% sucrose solution in addition to water available ad libitum. Plasma leptin and adiposity index, defined as epididymal white fat expressed as percentage of body mass, were markedly increased only in HFD-fed animals drinking sucrose under short, but not long, photoperiods. Voluntary ingestion of sucrose under short days was greater in HFD rats compared with HCD animals over the experiment, while a trend for the opposite effect was visible under long days. Total energy intake was not changed overall, as rats proportionally decreased chow intake when they drank sucrose. A noteworthy exception was the HFD group with sucrose access under short days that significantly increased their total calorie intake. Fasting blood glucose was generally unaltered, except for an increase in HFD-fed animals drinking sucrose under long days compared to control animals, suggesting a decrease in glucose tolerance. Insulin resistance was not yet affected by nutritional or photoperiodic conditions after 4 experimental weeks. Even if photoperiod cannot be considered as an obesogenic environmental factor per se, the metabolic effects resulting from the combination of high-fat feeding and voluntary intake of sucrose were dependent on day-length. Exposure to short days triggers a larger increase of sucrose ingestion and hyperleptinemia in rats fed with HFD compared to the control diet. Considering that the cardinal symptoms of winter depression include carbohydrate craving and increased adiposity, the present data provide an experimental basis for developing new animal models of seasonal affective disorder.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 09/2008; 33(9):1269-78. DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.07.003 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by evening hyperphagia and frequent awakenings accompanied by food intake. Patients with NES display a delayed circadian pattern of food intake but retain a normal sleep-wake cycle. These characteristics initiated the current study, in which the phase and amplitude of behavioral and neuroendocrine circadian rhythms in patients with NES were evaluated. Fifteen women with NES (mean age +/- SD, 40.8 +/- 8.7 y) and 14 control subjects (38.6 +/- 9.5 y) were studied in the laboratory for 3 nights, with food intake measured daily. Blood also was collected for 25 h (every 2 h from 0800 to 2000 h, and then hourly from 2100 to 0900 h) and assayed for glucose and 7 hormones (insulin, ghrelin, leptin, melatonin, cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] and prolactin). Statistical analyses utilized linear mixed-effects cosinor analysis. Control subjects displayed normal phases and amplitudes for all circadian rhythms. In contrast, patients with NES showed a phase delay in the timing of meals, and delayed circadian rhythms for total caloric, fat, and carbohydrate intake. In addition, phase delays of 1.0 to 2.8 h were found in 2 food-regulatory rhythms-leptin and insulin-and in the circadian melatonin rhythm (with a trend for a delay in the circadian cortisol rhythm). In contrast, circulating levels of ghrelin, the primary hormone that stimulates food intake, were phase advanced by 5.2 h. The glucose rhythm showed an inverted circadian pattern. Patients with NES also showed reduced amplitudes in the circadian rhythms of food intake, cortisol, ghrelin, and insulin, but increased TSH amplitude. Thus, patients with NES demonstrated significant changes in the timing and amplitude of various behavioral and physiological circadian markers involved in appetite and neuroendocrine regulation. As such, NES may result from dissociations between central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) timing mechanisms and putative oscillators elsewhere in the central nervous system or periphery, such as the stomach or liver. Considering these results, chronobiologic treatments for NES such as bright light therapy may be useful. Indeed, bright light therapy has shown efficacy in reducing night eating in case studies and should be evaluated in controlled clinical trials.
    Journal of Biological Rhythms 03/2009; 24(1):85-94. DOI:10.1177/0748730408328914 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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