Preoperative cardiac evaluation: when should the surgeon consult the cardiologist?
ABSTRACT We compiled a manual aimed at reducing preoperative cardiac assessment costs and defining the roles of surgeons and cardiologists. We tested prospectively and retrospectively if this manual achieved these goals.
Using the Guidelines for Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) / American Heart Association (AHA), and other articles as a reference, we compiled the Jichi Medical School Hospital (JMSH) Manual in September 2002. This manual contains a novel checklist and flowcharts and includes all past and present cardiac disorders, complications, abnormalities in electrocardiograms (ECGs) and chest X-rays, and evaluation of daily activity. Using this manual, we prospectively studied 1087 surgical candidates from September 2002 to August 2003, and retrospectively analyzed 927 surgical candidates from September 2001 to August 2002.
In the prospective study, 39 (3.6%) patients were deemed to require further cardiac assessment and 4 (0.37%) suffered postoperative complications. In the retrospective study, 108 (11.7%) were deemed to require further cardiac assessment and 20 (2.2%) suffered postoperative complications. Using this manual reduced preoperative cardiac examination costs by 1323,600 Japanese yen, representing a 70.5% reduction.
The JMSH Manual defines the roles of surgeons and cardiologists and is useful for assessing preoperative cardiac function and surgical risks. This manual dramatically reduced the costs associated with preoperative cardiac examinations.
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ABSTRACT: We provide an updated algorithm for approaching preoperative cardiac risk assessment in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. A National Library of Medicine PubMed literature search was performed dating back to 1985 using the keywords "preoperative cardiac risk for noncardiac surgery." This search was restricted to English language articles involving human subjects. Patient-specific and operation-specific cardiac risk can be determined clinically. Patients with major cardiac risk factors have a high incidence of perioperative cardiac complications, whereas the risk is less than 3% for low-risk patients. For intermediate-risk patients, no prospective randomized studies demonstrate the efficacy of noninvasive stress testing (dipyridamole thallium or dobutamine echocardiography) or of subsequent coronary revascularization for preventing perioperative cardiac complications. Recent studies demonstrate that perioperative beta-blockade significantly reduces the adverse cardiac event rate in intermediate-risk patients. Most patients with high cardiac risk should proceed with coronary angiography. Patients with low cardiac risk can proceed to surgery without noninvasive testing. For intermediate-risk patients, consideration may be given to further stress testing prior to surgery; however, in most patients, proceeding to surgery with perioperative beta-blockade is an acceptable alternative.Archives of Surgery 01/2002; 136(12):1370-6. · 4.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To establish rates of and risk factors for cardiac complications after noncardiac surgery in veterans. Prospective cohort study. A large urban veterans affairs hospital. One thousand patients with known or suspected cardiac problems undergoing 1,121 noncardiac procedures. Patients were assessed preoperatively for important clinical variables. Postoperative evaluation was done by an assessor blinded to preoperative status with a daily physical examination, electrocardiogram, and creatine kinase with MB fraction until postoperative day 6, day of discharge, death, or reoperation (whichever occurred earliest). Serial electrocardiograms, enzymes, and chest radiographs were obtained as indicated. Severe cardiac complications included cardiac death, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, ventricular tachycardia, and fibrillation and pulmonary edema. Serious cardiac complications included the above, heart failure, and unstable angina. Severe and serious complications were seen in 24% and 32% of aortic, 8.3% and 10% of carotid, 11.8% and 14.7% of peripheral vascular, 9.0% and 13.1% of intraabdominal/intrathoracic, 2.9% and 3.3% of intermediate-risk (head and neck and major orthopedic procedures), and 0.27% and 1.1% of low-risk procedures respectively. The five associated patient-specific risk factors identified by logistic regression are: myocardial infarction < 6 months (odds ratio [OR], 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 12.9), emergency surgery (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.6), myocardial infarction > 6 months (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.5), heart failure ever (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.0), and rhythm other than sinus (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.9 to 3.2). Inclusion of the planned operative procedure significantly improves the predictive ability of our risk model. Five patient-specific risk factors are associated with high risk for cardiac complications in the perioperative period of noncardiac surgery in veterans. Inclusion of the operative procedure significantly improves the predictive ability of the risk model. Overall cardiac complication rates (pretest probabilities) are established for these patients. A simple nomogram is presented for calculation of post-test probabilities by incorporating the operative procedure.Journal of General Internal Medicine 08/2001; 16(8):507-18. · 3.28 Impact Factor
- Journal of Anesthesia 02/2002; 16(4):319-31. · 0.87 Impact Factor