The present study was conducted to investigate the specificity of the association between parental and offspring psychiatric disorders using epidemiological data from a series of parent and offspring interviews. A community-based sample of 593 mothers and their offspring from upstate New York were interviewed during the adolescence and early adulthood of the offspring. The children of parents with generalized anxiety disorder were at specifically elevated risk for anxiety disorders when co-occurring psychiatric disorders were controlled. The associations between parental and offspring antisocial, conduct, depressive, and substance use disorders were characterized by modest specificity. Children of parents with externalizing disorders were nearly as likely to develop internalizing disorders as they were to develop externalizing disorders. Children of parents with internalizing disorders were somewhat, but not significantly, more likely to develop internalizing disorders. These findings support the inference that children of parents with generalized anxiety disorder may be more likely to develop anxiety disorders than they are to develop other psychiatric disorders. However, when co-occurring psychiatric disorders are accounted for, the children of parents with depressive, disruptive, and substance use disorders may be as likely to develop other disorders as they are to develop the same type of disorder that their parents have had.
"The list of putative transdiagnostic processes or risk factors is quite long (e.g., see D. A. Clark & Taylor, 2009; Dudley, Kuyken, & Padesky, 2010; Mansell et al., 2009). There are a number of environments or experiences that have been reliably linked to many different psychopathologies, including sexual and physical abuse, particularly in childhood (Maniglio , 2009); inconsistent, harsh, or neglectful parenting (Dozois, Seeds, & Collins, 2009); and parental psychopathology (Avenevoli & Merikangas, 2006; Beidel & Turner, 1997; Johnson, Cohen, Kasen, & Brook, 2006). Then there are several intrapersonal factors that are related to a range of psychopathologies . "
"Although not signifi cant, it is possible that a larger cohort would have resulted in positive signifi cant associations between parental antisocial personality disorder and offspring smoking, even after accounting for familial vulnerability. The role of parental antisocial behavior is well established in previous research (Herndon and Iacono, 2005; Hicks et al., 2004; Johnson et al., 2006 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is not known if parental psychiatric disorders have an independent effect on offspring smoking after controlling for genetic and environmental vulnerability to nicotine dependence. We tested if parental alcohol, drug, or conduct disorders; antisocial personality disorder; depression; and anxiety disorders remained significant predictors of offspring smoking initiation, regular smoking, and nicotine dependence before and after adjusting for genetic and environmental risk for nicotine dependence.
Data were obtained via semi-structured interviews with 1,107 twin fathers, 1,919 offspring between the ages of 12 and 32, and 1,023 mothers. Genetic and environmental liability for smoking outcomes was defined by paternal and maternal nicotine dependence. Multinomial logistic regression models were computed to estimate the risk for offspring trying cigarettes, regular smoking, and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) as a function of parental psychopathology and sociodemographics before and after adjusting for genetic and environmental vulnerability to nicotine dependence.
Before adjusting for genetic and environmental risk for nicotine dependence, ever trying cigarettes was associated with maternal depression, regular smoking was associated with maternal alcohol dependence and maternal conduct disorder, and FTND was associated with paternal and maternal conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. No parental psychopathology remained significantly associated with regular smoking and FTND after adjusting for genetic and environmental vulnerability to nicotine dependence in a multivariate model.
The association between parental psychopathology and offspring smoking outcomes is partly explained by genetic and environmental risk for nicotine dependence. Point estimates suggest a trend for an association between parental antisocial personality disorder and offspring regular smoking and nicotine dependence after adjusting for genetic and environmental vulnerability. Studies in larger samples are warranted.
Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 09/2010; 71(5):664-73. DOI:10.15288/jsad.2010.71.664 · 2.76 Impact Factor
"Nevertheless, other parental psychopathology (other anxiety, depressive, substance use disorders) were similarly associated with DSM-IV threshold SAD, but also with subthreshold SAD. From that, the familial aggregation of SAD may likely also be determinated by cross-disorder risk factors (Johnson et al. 2006), as well as family based developmental conditions. Concordant with prior studies (Bandelow et al. 2004; Bögels et al. 2001; Lieb et al. 2000b; Taylor and Alden 2006; Woodruff-Borden et al. 2002), offspring reports of higher parental overprotection, rejection and lower emotional warmth were associated with DSM-IV threshold SAD. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined parental psychopathology and family environment in subthreshold and DSM-IV threshold conditions of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in a representative cohort sample of 1,395 adolescents. Offspring and parental psychopathology was assessed using the DIA-X/M-CIDI; recalled parental rearing and family functioning via questionnaire. Diagnostic interviews in parents were supplemented by family history reports from offspring. The cumulative lifetime incidence was 23.07% for symptomatic SAD, and 18.38 and 7.41% for subthreshold and threshold SAD, respectively. The specific parent-to-offspring association for SAD occurred for threshold SAD only. For subthreshold and threshold SAD similar associations were found with other parental anxiety disorders, depression and substance use disorders. Parental rearing behaviour, but not family functioning, was associated with offspring threshold SAD, and although less strong and less consistent, also with subthreshold SAD. Results suggest a continued graded relationship between familial risk factors and offspring SAD. Parental psychopathology and negative parental styles may be used defining high-risk groups to assign individuals with already subthreshold conditions of SAD to early intervention programs.
Lana J Williams, Felice N Jacka, Julie A Pasco, Carolyn E Coulson, Shae E Quirk, Amanda L Stuart, Michael Berk
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