Impact of type A behavior on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in Japanese.
ABSTRACT Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the velocity of a pulse wave traveling a given distance between 2 sites in the arterial system, and is a well-known indicator of arteriosclerosis. Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) is a parameter more simple to obtain, compared with the conventional PWV, and is an easy and effective means of evaluating arteriosclerosis. BaPWV can be obtained by only wrapping the four extremities with blood pressure cuffs, and it can be easily used to screen a large number of subjects. Type A behavior has been confirmed as an independent risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. To examine the relationship between Type A behavior and arteriosclerosis, 307 normal Japanese subjects were classified into either a Type A group (n = 90) or a non-Type A group (n = 217) by using Maeda's Type A Scale. BaPWV was evaluated using a PWV diagnosis device. The baPWV in the Type A group was significantly higher than that obtained in the non-Type A group. The baPWV showed a positive correlation with age both in the Type A group and in the non-Type A group; however, the straight-line regression slope of baPWV versus age in the Type A group was significantly larger than that in the non-Type A group. Therefore, our results suggest that arteriosclerosis might be promoted earlier in subjects expressing the Type A behavior pattern. Type A behavior pattern is confirmed as a risk factor for arteriosclerosis, and may increase the risk of the cardiovascular disease related to arteriosclerosis.
- SourceAvailable from: tamu.edu[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An overview is given of the current status of cardiac rehabilitation and its effects on morbidity and mortality. While there is an emphasis in most current programs upon physical exercise as an important autonomous risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), there is at the same time a tendency in cardiac rehabilitation to go beyond mere physical exercise towards adding more multimodal psychoeducational modules in rehabilitation programs; those approaches are aimed at educating the patient about a less risky and healthier way of life. Such psycho-education is more and more aimed at the "toxic" aspects of negative emotions. The in-between classic Type A Behavior Pattern (TABP) might, in general, be less powerful in predicting later CHD morbidity or mortality than some specific emotional components of TABP, such as anger and hostility. The literature is reviewed as to risk factors and CHD and the role of negative affectivity in development and or maintenance of CHD. Approaches for modification are discussed against the background of their effectivity in cardiac rehabilitation. The recent Dutch guidelines, issued by the Dutch Heart Foundation, appear to incorporate many of the elements mentioned in the research literature on cardiac rehabilitation. On a scientific level they form an excellent audit to evaluate and to contour efficiently the until-now very heterogeneous field of cardiac rehabilitation.Clinical Psychology Review 11/2000; 20(7):923-43. · 6.70 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recently a new automatic device that measures brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity using an oscillometric method has been developed. However, the practical significance of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity measurement remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and symptomatic cerebral infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes. One thousand sixty six patients with type 2 diabetes were studied cross-sectionally. Measurements of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity were made using the automatic device. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio for cerebral infarction. The presence of symptomatic cerebral infarction was confirmed in 86 patients. In these patients brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was found to be significantly higher than in patients without cerebral infarction (18.94 +/-; 4.95 versus 16.46 +/-; 3.62 m/s, p < 0.01). The association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and cerebral infarction remained significant after adjustment for traditional risk factors. There was an increasing odds ratio for each tertile of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, from the second tertile (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 4.94), to the third (odds ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 5.86). Overall, we conclude that an increase in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is associated with symptomatic cerebral infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes.Cardiovascular Diabetology 09/2003; 2:10. · 4.21 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to examine whether there are psychological factors that can incline an individual toward coronary heart disease and that can in turn identify a pattern of pituitary and adrenocortical responses that is associated with the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (IRS). The study was performed with 69 normotensive and 21 unmedicated borderline hypertensive men (age range, 30 to 55 years). Type A behavior, hostility (defined as cynicism, pessimism, and paranoia), vital exhaustion, and anger expressions were the behavioral variables studied. Among these, only the vital exhaustion-anger-out factor identified the neuroendocrine pattern that predicted the IRS. This neuroendocrine pattern consisted primarily of an adrenal responsiveness to ACTH and secondarily of a high mean basal cortisol-to-mean basal ACTH ratio. The contribution of this last variable was, however, slightly questionable. Instead of the traditional coronary-prone factors, ie, type A behavior and hostility, the findings emphasize the significance of vital exhaustion and emotional distress. The findings have been discussed in terms of defeat reaction, hypocortisolemia, and visceral obesity.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 03/1996; 16(2):275-80. · 6.34 Impact Factor
Type A Behavior and baPWV15
Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2006, 209, 15-21
Received December 14, 2005; revision accepted for publication March 6, 2006.
Correspondence: Hongjian Liu, Ph.D., Department of Medical Engineering and Cardiology, Institute of
Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryomachi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575, Japan.
Impact of Type A Behavior on Brachial-Ankle
Pulse Wave Velocity in Japanese
HONGJIAN LIU, YOSHIFUMI SAIJO, XIUMIN ZHANG,1 YASUYUKI SHIRAISHI, YUN LUO,2
MITSUYA MARUYAMA,3 MASARU HIGA,2 KAZUMITSU SEKINE and TOMOYUKI YAMBE
Department of Medical Engineering and Cardiology, Institute of Development,
Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan,
1 Department of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Tohoku
University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan,
2 Biomedical Engineering Research Organization, Tohoku University, Sendai,
3 Division of Medical Engineering and Clinical Investigation, Institute of
Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
LIU, H., SAIJO, Y., ZHANG, X., SHIRAISHI, Y., LUO, Y., MARUYAMA, M., HIGA, M., SEKINE,
K. and YAMBE, T. Impact of Type A Behavior on Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in
Japanese. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2006, 209(1), 15-21 ─ ─ Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is
the velocity of a pulse wave traveling a given distance between 2 sites in the arterial sys-
tem, and is a well-known indicator of arteriosclerosis. Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) is a
parameter more simple to obtain, compared with the conventional PWV, and is an easy and
effective means of evaluating arteriosclerosis. BaPWV can be obtained by only wrapping
the four extremities with blood pressure cuffs, and it can be easily used to screen a large
number of subjects. Type A behavior has been confirmed as an independent risk factor for
the development of coronary heart disease. To examine the relationship between Type A
behavior and arteriosclerosis, 307 normal Japanese subjects were classified into either a
Type A group (n = 90) or a non-Type A group (n = 217) by using Maeda’s Type A Scale.
BaPWV was evaluated using a PWV diagnosis device. The baPWV in the Type A group
was significantly higher than that obtained in the non-Type A group. The baPWV showed
a positive correlation with age both in the Type A group and in the non-Type A group;
however, the straight-line regression slope of baPWV versus age in the Type A group was
significantly larger than that in the non-Type A group. Therefore, our results suggest that
arteriosclerosis might be promoted earlier in subjects expressing the Type A behavior
pattern. Type A behavior pattern is confirmed as a risk factor for arteriosclerosis, and may
increase the risk of the cardiovascular disease related to arteriosclerosis. ──── Type A
behavior; Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity; arteriosclerosis
© 2006 Tohoku University Medical Press
H. Liu et al.16
Type A behavior was first described by
Friedman and Rosenman in the late 1950s, and it
has since drawn considerable attention as a possi-
ble coronary risk factor. This behavior pattern
includes impatience, aggressiveness, a sense of
time urgency, an intense achievement drive, and a
desire for recognition and advancement. In the
Western Collaborative Group Study, the Type A
behavior pattern was shown to be predictive of
the incidence of coronary heart disease indepen-
dently of the traditional risk factors such as smok-
ing, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension (Buller et
al. 1998; Yoshimasu 2001). Type A behavior may
enhance the rate of development of coronary arte-
riosclerosis, and the presence and severity of cor-
onary arteriosclerosis as determined by angiogra-
phy have been investigated in relation to the
presence and severity of Type A behavior
(Sparagon et al. 2001). Type A behavior assessed
by a questionnaire modified to Japanese charac-
teristics and job strain has been linked to angio-
graphically determined coronary arteriosclerosis
(Yoshimasu et al. 2000; Gallacher et al. 2003).
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a well known
indicator of arteriosclerosis. Many reports have
described the relationship between PWV and the
development of arteriosclerotic disease. Recent
studies have demonstrated that PWV is not only a
risk marker of cardiovascular disease, but is also a
prognostic predictor (Altun et al. 2004; Fujiwara
et al. 2004; Tomiyama et al. 2004, 2005;
Woodside et al. 2004).
PWV is the velocity of a pulse wave travel-
ing a given distance between 2 sites in the arterial
system. Recently, a new, simple device to mea-
sure brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV)
has been developed using pressure cuffs wrapped
around the brachium and ankle. BaPWV has
potential as a new marker of cardiovascular risk
over conventional markers, as it is easy to obtain
and serves as an indicator of either arteriosclerotic
cardiovascular risk or severity of arteriosclerotic
vascular damage. Thus it can be useful in screen-
ing the general population (Yamashina et al. 2003;
Yokoyama et al. 2003; Ogawa et al. 2005).
Therefore, we hypothesized that if Type A
behavior could be a risk factor of arteriosclerosis,
subjects expressing the Type A behavior pattern
might show a higher baPWV. The aim of this
study was to compare differences of baPWV
between subjects showing Type A behavior and
those not showing Type A behavior.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Three hundreds and seven normal Japanese subjects
participated in this study. The data were collected at
Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. The exclusion criteria
were the following: hypertension (defined as systolic
blood pressure [SBP] ≧ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood
pressure [DBP] ≧ 90 mmHg, or drug treatment for
hypertension), endocrine disease, significant renal or
hepatic disease, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias,
cerebrovascular disease, or use of medication for diabe-
tes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Written informed consent
was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol
was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tohoku
University, Graduate School of Medicine and School of
Measurement of the Type A behavior pattern
Type A behavior was assessed by an abbreviated set
of 12 questions developed by Maeda (1991). This
assessment is considered to be very practical for epide-
miological investigations because of its convenience.
Each question is listed in Table 1. The subjects were
asked to answer all of the questions. Each question
allowed three responses. Two, 1, and 0 points were
assigned, respectively, to responses of “always”, “occa-
sionally”, and “hardly” for questionnaire items 1, 2, 3, 4,
7, 8, 10, 11, and 12, and the points were doubled for
questionnaire items 5, 6, and 9. A total score of 17 or
greater was defined as Type A.
Measurement of baPWV
The subjects were examined while resting in the
supine position. After at least a 5-minute bed rest,
baPWV was recorded using an automated device
(VaSeraVS-1000, Fukuda Denshi, Tokyo) (Liu et al.
2005; Watanabe et al. 2005). This device simultaneously
records baPWV, blood pressure (BP), electrocardiogram,
and heart sounds. Electrocardiogram electrodes were
placed on both wrists, and a heart sound microphone was
placed on the left sternal border. Cuffs to measure
baPWV were wrapped around both upper arms and
ankles, and connected to a plethysmographic sensor that
Type A Behavior and baPWV17
determines volume pulse form. Volume waveforms were
stored for a sampling time of 10 s with automatic gain
analysis and quality adjustment. This instrument
simultaneously records the baPWV on the left and right
sides. The highest baPWV on both sides was deter-
mined, and subsequent statistical analyses were per-
formed using these values (Liu et al. 2005; Tomiyama et
Data are expressed as mean ± S.D. All statistical
analyses were performed using StatView-5 software (SAS
Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Student’s t-test was used
to examine statistical difference of baPWV, BMI or SBP
between subjects with Type A behavior and subjects
without Type A behavior. Multiple linear regression
analysis was performed to evaluate the association
between baPWV and age, BMI, SBP, DBP, and Type A
Scale in the subjects. Pearson’s correlation coefficient
analysis was used to assess the relation between baPWV
and SBP in subjects with Type A behavior and subjects
without Type A behavior and the relation between PWV
and Type A Scale in 307 subjects. Partial correlation
coefficient analysis was used to describe the correlation
between baPWV and age using SBP as covariate. p <
0.05 was regarded as statistically significant.
Comparison of baPWV, BMI, and SBP between
the Type A group and the non-Type A group
The subjects’ characteristics are summarized
in Table 2. Three hundreds and seven normal
Japanese subjects were classified into either the
Type A group (n = 90) or the non-Type A group
(n = 217). BaPWV in the Type A group was sig-
nificantly higher than that in non-Type A group.
SBP and BMI were also significantly higher in the
Type A group than those in the non-Type A group.
TABLE 1. Maeda’s questionnaire for Type A behavior pattern
1. Do you have a busy daily life?
2. Do you feel being pressed for time in your daily life?
3. Do you easily become enthusiastic over your job or other things?
4. When you are absorbed in your job, do you find it difficult to
change your mind?
5. Are you a perfectionist?
6. Do you have confidence in yourself?
7. Do you easily feel tense?
8. Do you easily feel irritated or angry?
9. Are you punctual with everything?
10. Are you unyielding?
11. Do you have an intense temper?
12. Do you easily become competitive about job or other things?
Each question had three responses. Points 2, 1, and 0 were given to the answers of “always”,
“occasionally”, and “hardly” for 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 11 and 12 nine questions, and the points were doubled
for 5, 6 and 9 three questions. A total score of 17 or greater was defined as type A.
TABLE 2. Characteristics of subjects
VariablesType A group Non-Type A group
34.29 ± 16.54
21.96 ± 2.94
11.88 ± 2.35
124.94 ± 8.24
33.92 ± 14.94
21.24 ± 2.49*
10.96 ± 1.25*
122.27 ± 9.14*
Data represent mean ± S.D.
* p < 0.05 (Student’s t-test).
H. Liu et al.18
Correlation of baPWV with age and SBP in the
Type A group and in the non-Type A group
Table 3 shows the results of multiple regres-
sion analysis including baPWV and age, BMI,
SBP, DBP, or Type A Scale. Age, SBP, and Type
A Scale were significantly associated with
baPWV, whereas BMI and DBP showed no sig-
After adjusting for SBP, baPWV showed a
significant positive partial correlation with age
both in the Type A group (r = 0.72, p < 0.05) (Fig.
1A) and in the non-Type A group (r = 0.54, p <
0.05) (Fig. 1B). Comparisons between straight-
line regression slopes were made using an analy-
sis of covariance. The slope of baPWV vs age in
the Type A group (Y = 7.946 + 0.102X) was sig-
nificantly larger than that in the non-Type A group
(Y = 10.251 + 0.044X) (F = 45.38, p < 0.001).
BaPWV showed a significant positive corre-
lation with SBP both in the Type A group (r = 0.41,
p < 0.05) (Fig. 2A) and in the non-Type A group
(r = 0.31, p < 0.05) (Fig. 2B). The slope of
baPWV vs SBP in the Type A group (Y = −2.831
+ 0.118X) was significantly larger than that in the
non-Type A group (Y = 5.816 + 0.042X) (F =
10.99, p < 0.001).
TABLE 3. Multiple regression analysis of the
factors associated with baPWV
Type A Scale
Fig. 1. Relations between baPWV and age adjusted
for SBP in Type A group (A) and non-Type A
Fig. 2. Relations between baPWV and SBP in the
Type A group (A) and in the non-Type A group
Type A Behavior and baPWV19
Correlation of baPWV and SBP with the Type
A Scale in 307 subjects
BaPWV showed a significant positive corre-
lation with the Type A Scale in 307 subjects (r =
0.34, p < 0.05) (Fig. 3A). However, SBP showed
no significant correlation with the Type A Scale
In the present study, we compared the
baPWV of subjects with Type A behavior and
those without Type A behavior for the first time.
Our major finding is that the baPWV of the Type
A group had higher values than those of the non-
Type A group. Therefore, our results suggest that
subjects expressing the Type A behavior pattern
have a higher risk for arteriosclerotic diseases
than do subjects showing a non-Type A behavior
Arterial stiffness is a cause of premature
return of reflected waves in late systole, increasing
central pulse pressure and the load on the ventri-
cle, reducing ejection fraction, and increasing
myocardial oxygen demand (Laurent et al. 2001).
The principal outcomes of these changes are left
ventricular hypertrophy, aggravation of coronary
ischemia, and increased fatigue of arterial wall
tissues (Shoji et al. 2001; Blacher et al. 2003).
Higher systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure,
lower diastolic blood pressure, and left ventricular
hypertrophy have been identified as independent
factors of cardiovascular morbidity. Arterial stiff-
ness is correlated with atherosclerosis, probably
through the effects of cyclic stress on arterial wall
thickening (Laurent et al. 2001).
The synergistic effect of hypertension and
arteriosclerosis may appear as a higher PWV
value. The degree of PWV elevation may corre-
spond to the degree of arteriosclerotic change: a
very high PWV may indicate that the arterioscle-
rotic process is already well established (Ogawa
et al. 2003; Yokoyama et al. 2003). Thus, an
increased PWV was associated with arterioscle-
rotic risk factors (Altun et al. 2004; Fujiwara et al.
2004; Tomiyama et al. 2004).
We also examined the correlation between
baPWV and age. BaPWV showed a significantly
positive correlation with age in subjects both with
Type A behavior and in subjects without Type A
behavior. The significant positive correlation
found between baPWV and age showed that arter-
ies become less elastic with age, and arterial stiff-
ening was observed with increasing age (Oren et
al. 2003). Aging induces structural and functional
abnormalities such as arterial wall hypertrophy
and degeneration or disorganization of the medial
layer. These changes increase PWV because of
increased arterial stiffness (Tomiyama et al. 2004,
Moreover, we found that the straight-line
regression slope of baPWV vs age was signifi-
cantly larger in subjects with Type A behavior
than in subjects without Type A behavior. These
results suggest that the increase of baPWV with
age occurred earlier, the development of arterio-
Fig. 3. Relations between baPWV and Type A Scale
in 307 subjects (A) and Relations between SBP
and Type A Scale in 307 subjects (B).
H. Liu et al.20
sclerosis was faster, and an overall higher cardio-
vascular risk was shown in subjects expressing
Type A behavior than in subjects not expressing
Type A behavior. This trend may be associated
with the effects on psychosocial variables of the
Type A behavior pattern. A series of recent find-
ings support adverse psychosocial effects relevant
to arteriosclerosis under conditions of mental
stress. Psychological variables may also impact
the course of coronary disease through behavioral
mechanisms (Rutledge et al. 2001).
Type A men, irrespective of coronary status,
showed larger systolic and diastolic blood pres-
sure response to both mental and physical stress
than did Type B men (Sundin et al. 1995). Type A
behavior may produce mental overload and stress,
while coronary-prone exhaustion is characterized
by inappropriate coping with environmental stress
and giving up when confronted with life distress.
Type A behavior is seen as personality traits, but it
may also be a set of reactions to environmental
stress and thus easily influenced by life events and
working stress (Keltikangas-Jarvinen et al. 1996).
Recently, it was reported that there exists a certain
relationship between psychological factors and the
extent of atherosclerosis measured by coronary
angiography (Whiteman et al. 2000). There are
few studies investigating the psychosocial factors
related to these measures of arteriosclerotic dis-
ease processes. Psychosocial factors have been
shown to contribute significantly to the develop-
ment and clinical manifestations of coronary ar-
tery disease (CAD) (Whiteman et al. 2000). Type
A behavior pattern is predictive of increased risk
of coronary arteriosclerosis and might contribute
to premature coronary arteriosclerosis and
increased risk for CAD (Donker 2000; Yoshimasu
et al. 2000, 2001; Sparagon et al. 2001).
Heart rate, lipid profiles and plasma glucose
also influence PWV. However, these parameters
were not examined in this study. It might be of
interest to examine whether Type A behavior
In summary, the baPWV in the Type A group
was significantly higher than that observed in the
non-Type A group. The baPWV showed a posi-
tive correlation with age both in the Type A and
the non-Type A groups. Moreover, the increasing
trend of baPWV against age seen in the Type A
group had a larger value than that of non-Type A
group. Our results suggest that arteriosclerosis
might be promoted earlier in subjects showing the
Type A behavior pattern. Type A behavior pattern
is confirmed as a risk factor for arteriosclerosis,
and may promote to increase the risk of the car-
diovascular disease related to arteriosclerosis.
These findings may be associated with the differ-
ences in their psychosocial factors.
This work was partly supported by a Grant-in-
aid for Scientific Research (11480253), a Research
Grant for Cardiovascular Diseases from the Ministry
of Health and Welfare and Program for Promotion
of Fundamental Studies in Health Science of
Organizing for Drug ADR Relief, R&D Promotion
and Product Review of Japan, and Health and
Labour Sciences Research Grants for Research on
Advanced Medical Technology.
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