Assessing HIV resistance in developing countries: Brazil as a case study.
ABSTRACT Increased transmission of resistant HIV has been raised as a potential consequence of expanded access to antiretroviral therapy. We review how limitations in resources and health care infrastructure may impact the transmission of resistant HIV, and we examine data from Brazil as a case study. We introduce a biological and clinical framework to identify the major determinants of transmitted resistance and to discuss how these determinants may be affected by a lack of infrastructure. We then use our framework to examine HIV resistance data from Brazil. This country was chosen as a case study due to its extensive experience delivering antiretroviral drugs and because of the availability of data on the prevalence of resistant HIV there. The data from Brazil show that antiretroviral therapy can be delivered in a resource-limited setting without resulting in widespread transmission of resistant virus. While the Brazilian experience does not necessarily generalize to countries with less health care infrastructure, neither theory nor data support a foregone conclusion that resistance will necessarily dominate HIV epidemics in the developing world to a greater extent than it does in the developed world.
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ABSTRACT: The results are presented from a 2005 survey of 377 women in four HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Uganda. The aim of the study was to explore women's economic hardships and the association with four sexual risk behaviors: whether a woman was sexually active in the last 12 months, whether a condom was used during the last sex act, whether she reported having had a sexual partner in the last six months who she suspected had multiple partners and report of forced, coercive or survival sex in the last six months. Few women were sexually active (34%), likely due to the high proportion of widows (49%). Married women were likely to report forced, coercive or survival sex (35%). Eighty-four percent of women reported condom used at last sex act. Forced, coercive or survival sex was associated with number of meals missed per week (AOR=1.125, 95% CI 1.11, 1.587, p<0.05). Sex with a partner in the last six months who a woman suspected had multiple partners was also associated with number of missed meals per week (AOR=2.080, 95% CI 1.084, 3.992). Currently women in Ugandan antiretroviral therapy programs are not likely to be sexually active, except for married women. Many women need to find food and other support, which may put them at risk of forced, coercive or survival sex due to dependency on men.AIDS Care 03/2009; 21(3):355-67. · 1.60 Impact Factor
- 12/2008: pages 629-654;