Assessing HIV resistance in developing countries: Brazil as a case study
ABSTRACT Increased transmission of resistant HIV has been raised as a potential consequence of expanded access to antiretroviral therapy. We review how limitations in resources and health care infrastructure may impact the transmission of resistant HIV, and we examine data from Brazil as a case study. We introduce a biological and clinical framework to identify the major determinants of transmitted resistance and to discuss how these determinants may be affected by a lack of infrastructure. We then use our framework to examine HIV resistance data from Brazil. This country was chosen as a case study due to its extensive experience delivering antiretroviral drugs and because of the availability of data on the prevalence of resistant HIV there. The data from Brazil show that antiretroviral therapy can be delivered in a resource-limited setting without resulting in widespread transmission of resistant virus. While the Brazilian experience does not necessarily generalize to countries with less health care infrastructure, neither theory nor data support a foregone conclusion that resistance will necessarily dominate HIV epidemics in the developing world to a greater extent than it does in the developed world.
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ABSTRACT: To describe surveillance measures to inform HIV drug-resistance prevention, as part of the public health approach to antiretroviral therapy in developing countries. Neither HIV drug-resistance transmission nor its emergence in treatment is routinely assessed in the developing world, but routine methods should be part of antiretroviral therapy scale-up. Mathematical modelling and experience in resource-rich countries suggest HIV drug-resistance transmission will increase as antiretroviral therapy coverage increases, but its rise will be limited initially. Transmission surveys should begin in geographic areas in each country where antiretroviral therapy coverage is widespread. Reports from resource-limited countries suggest that antiretroviral therapy programs are as effective as in resource-rich countries, which should limit HIV drug resistance if effectiveness is maintained with antiretroviral therapy expansion. Surveillance of HIV drug resistance emerging in treatment and other factors will support implementation of prevention measures on a population level. Standardized surveillance of transmitted and treatment-associated HIV drug resistance is critical to the success of antiretroviral therapy expansion in developing countries. Routine assessment of prescribing practices, availability of and access to appropriate regimens for adults and children, antiretroviral drug supply continuity, and measures to prevent HIV transmission will supply critical information for HIV drug-resistance prevention.Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 01/2007; 19(6):607-14. DOI:10.1097/QCO.0b013e3280109ff1 · 5.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A review was carried out of papers published between 1996 and 2006, documenting the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in Brazil. Papers indexed in the MEDLINE and SciELO databases were retrieved using different combinations of keywords related to the management and care of AIDS in the post-HAART era: opportunistic diseases and co-infections, adherence to therapy, survival in the pre- and post-HAART eras, adverse events and side-effects, emergence and possible transmission of resistant viral strains, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and issues related to access to care and equity. The review documents the dramatic changes in HIV/AIDS disease progression in the post-HAART era, including an increase in survival and quality of life and a pronounced decrease in the episodes of opportunistic diseases. Notwithstanding such major achievements, new challenges have emerged, including slow evolving co-infections (such as hepatitis C, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders), the emergence of viral resistance, with consequences at the individual level (virological failure) and the community level (primary/secondary resistance at the population level), and impacts on the cost of new therapeutic regimens.Cadernos de Saúde Pública 02/2007; 23 Suppl 3:S345-59. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2007001500003 · 0.89 Impact Factor