Interleukin-6 induces both cell growth and VEGF production in malignant mesotheliomas.
ABSTRACT Malignant mesothelioma (MM), an incurable tumor, is reportedly an interleukin-6 (IL-6) secreting tumor. The pathological significance of IL-6 overexpression in this tumor, however, has remained unclear. We investigated the biological functions of IL-6 in mesotheliomas. Five mesothelioma cell lines were analyzed for IL-6 production and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression. Of them, 2 produced high levels of IL-6, 2 produced intermediate levels and 1 cell line showed no secretion. All mesothelioma cell lines used in this study expressed very small amounts of IL-6R mRNA. We compensated for this low level of IL-6R expression in mesotheliomas by adding recombinant soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) to mediate the IL-6 signal. IL-6 together with sIL-6R was found to promote cell growth of H2052 and H226 MMs classified as high-level IL-6 producers in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, a humanized anti-IL-6R antibody (MRA) capable of blocking IL-6 signaling suppressed the cell growth of mesotheliomas induced by IL-6/sIL-6R. These findings demonstrate that IL-6 serves as an autocrine growth factor in the development of mesothelioma. In addition, IL-6/sIL-6R stimulation increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 4 out of 5 cell lines, and this induction was inhibited by MRA treatment. The involvement of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway in both cell growth and VEGF induction by IL-6/sIL-6R was verified by dominant negative STAT3 transduction combined with adenovirus gene-delivery methods. Although IL-6 induces VEGF through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, anti-VEGF antibody could not inhibit the IL-6-induced cell growth observed in H2052 and H226. We concluded that IL-6-dependent growth does not occur via VEGF induction. These results suggest that treatment with anti-IL-6R antibody may constitute a potential molecular targeting therapy for MMs.
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ABSTRACT: The CD20 antigen is expressed on more than 90% of B-cell lymphomas. It is appealing for targeted therapy, because it does not shed or modulate. A chimeric monoclonal antibody more effectively mediates host effector functions and is itself less immunogenic than are murine antibodies. This was a multiinstitutional trial of the chimeric anti-CD20 antibody, IDEC-C2B8. Patients with relapsed low grade or follicular lymphoma received an outpatient treatment course of IDEC-C2B8 375 mg/m2 intravenously weekly for four doses. From 31 centers, 166 patients were entered. Of this intent-to-treat group, 48% responded. With a median follow-up duration of 11.8 months, the projected median time to progression for responders is 13.0 months. Serum antibody levels were sustained longer after the fourth infusion than after the first, and were higher in responders and in patients with lower tumor burden. The majority of adverse events occurred during the first infusion and were grade 1 or 2; fever and chills were the most common events. Only 12% of patients had grade 3 and 3% grade 4 toxicities. A human antichimeric antibody was detected in only one patient. The response rate of 48% with IDEC-C2B8 is comparable to results with single-agent cytotoxic chemotherapy. Toxicity was mild. Attention needs to be paid to the rate of antibody infusion, with titration according to toxicity. Further investigation of this agent is warranted, including its use in conjunction with standard chemotherapy.Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/1998; 16(8):2825-33. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-6 plays a significant role in genitourinary carcinomas. The present study was conducted to define the role of IL-6 in the growth of prostatic carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). An in vitro experiment was carried out using human prostatic carcinoma cell lines (LNCaP, which is androgen sensitive and slow growing, and DU145 and PC3, which are androgen insensitive and fast growing), and primary human epithelial and stromal cells derived from BPH. Cells were treated with recombinant human IL-6 or conditioned medium (CM) derived from the above cultured cells to identify possible paracrine and autocrine pathways. LNCaP was clearly responsive to exogenous IL-6 and to the CM derived from stromal cells, but not to the CM from LNCaP cells (P < 0.001). DU145 and PC3 were slightly stimulated to grow by exogenous IL-6 and the CM derived from both stromal and respective homologous cells (P < 0.01). In contrast, BPH-derived epithelial cells showed little or no response to IL-6. The stimulatory effect of CM on prostatic carcinoma cells was significantly reduced by the addition of anti-IL-6 antibody to the culture medium. Furthermore, the growth of DU145 and PC3 in serum-free medium was also inhibited by anti-IL-6 antibody (P < 0.001). All cell lines tested, except for LNCaP, secreted IL-6 into the culture medium. Results of reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis indicated that IL-6 receptor mRNA was present in all carcinoma cell lines but not in epithelial cells or stromal cells derived from BPH. These results suggest that IL-6 functions as a paracrine growth factor for LNCaP and as an autocrine growth factor for DU145 and PC3, but it has no stimulatory effect on epithelial cells derived from BPH.Cancer Research 01/1997; 57(1):141-6. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha have been proven to play an important role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is well known that TNF-alpha induces IL-6 production from synovial cells as well as their proliferation. The effect of IL-6 on synovial cells, however, is not clear. An in vitrostudy was performed to determine the effect of IL-6 on the proliferation of synovial cells. Fibroblastic synovial cells isolated from the synovial tissues of eight RA patients were employed after the third to sixth passages. IL-6 in the presence of soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) inhibited the proliferation of synovial cells in a dose-dependent manner in seven cases without increasing the number of necrotic or apoptotic cells, while TNF-alpha increased synovial cell proliferation in all cases. The inhibitory effect of IL-6 was observed only in the presence of sIL-6R although small amounts of IL-6R were detected in these cells by RT-PCR analysis. However, anti-IL-6R or anti-gp130 mAb treatment increased spontaneous growth of synovial cells in all eight cases, suggesting that endogenous IL-6 and a small amount of IL-6R expressed in synovial cells suppressed their growth without exogenous IL-6 or sIL-6R. In addition, the IL-6-sIL-6R complex reduced the TNF-alpha-induced proliferation of synovial cells while TNF-alpha induced their IL-6 production. These data suggest that IL-6 may act as a negative feedback factor for TNF-alpha-induced synovial cell growth.International Immunology 03/2000; 12(2):187-93. · 3.14 Impact Factor