Celiac disease in African-Americans.

Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences (Impact Factor: 2.55). 06/2006; 51(5):1012-5. DOI: 10.1007/s10620-005-9000-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Celiac disease is generally under diagnosed in the United States and it is unclear whether the disease is encountered in ethnic minorities. Our purpose is to describe a case series of African-American patients with celiac disease. Nine (1.3%) African-American patients with celiac disease were identified from a prospectively generated database of 700 patients with biopsy proven celiac disease and seen between 1981 and 2004. Females predominated, with seven, compared to two males. Diarrhea was the presentation in only two patients, while three presented with iron deficiency anemia. One third had at least one autoimmune disease. Compliance with a gluten-free diet, the only medical therapy of this disease, was poor. Only four patients adhered strictly to the diet. Celiac disease occurs in African-Americans and may well be underdiagnosed. Special attention needs to be given to methods that encourage adherence to the diet in minority groups.

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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionCoeliac disease (CD) is a common diagnosis among children and adults in Iraq; however, removal of gluten from the diet is essential for patients with CD. The aim of this study, the first such study in Iraq, was to assess the serological and histological recovery profiles of coeliac patients, in both children and adults groups after commencing a gluten-free diet (GFD) for at least 1 year ± 1 month.Material and methodsThe study group comprised 78 proved coeliac patients (46 children and 32 adults, median age: 15 years, range: 1–66 years) who all agreed to undergo endoscopy in addition to serological assessment before and after treatment. The duodenal biopsies were interpreted histologically according to modified Marsh criteria and the sera were tested for anti-gliadin antibody (AGA), endomysium antibody (EMA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG).ResultsComplete histological remission was seen in 29 (63.1%) of 46 treated children CD patients, while only 5 (10.9%) showed Marsh IIIa changes compared with 11 (24%) before GFD. Similarly none of the 32 adults after GFD showed Marsh IIIb and Marsh IIIc compared with 46.9% and 28.1% before treatment respectively (p = 001). Meanwhile, there was strongly significant reduction in AGA, EMA, and tTG antibodies levels (p = 0.00001) following GFD.ConclusionsRepeating the duodenal biopsy 1 year ±1 month after diagnosis and starting a GFD supports the routine measurement of using histological findings as a gold standard test to confirm recovery of Iraqi CD patients along with using known coeliac serology antibodies.
    Archives of Medical Science 05/2014; 10(2):294-9. DOI:10.5114/aoms.2012.31297 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies in European populations have contributed to a better understanding of the genetics of complex diseases, for example, in coeliac disease (CeD), studies of over 23 000 European samples have reported association to the HLA locus and another 39 loci. However, these associations have not been evaluated in detail in other ethnicities. We sought to better understand how disease-associated loci that have been mapped in Europeans translate to a disease risk for a population with a different ethnic background. We therefore performed a validation of European risk loci for CeD in 497 cases and 736 controls of north Indian origin. Using a dense-genotyping platform (Immunochip), we confirmed the strong association to the HLA region (rs2854275, P=8.2 × 10(-49)). Three loci showed suggestive association (rs4948256, P=9.3 × 10(-7), rs4758538, P=8.6 × 10(-5) and rs17080877, P=2.7 × 10(-5)). We directly replicated five previously reported European variants (P<0.05; mapping to loci harbouring FASLG/TNFSF18, SCHIP1/IL12A, PFKFB3/PRKCQ, ZMIZ1 and ICOSLG). Using a transferability test, we further confirmed association at PFKFB3/PRKCQ (rs2387397, P=2.8 × 10(-4)) and PTPRK/THEMIS (rs55743914, P=3.4 × 10(-4)). The north Indian population has a higher degree of consanguinity than Europeans and we therefore explored the role of recessively acting variants, which replicated the HLA locus (rs9271850, P=3.7 × 10(-23)) and suggested a role of additional four loci. To our knowledge, this is the first replication study of CeD variants in a non-European population.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 23 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.137.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 07/2014; 23(4). DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2014.137 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives:Racial disparities in the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) and the number of people without CD avoiding gluten (PWAG) in the United States are unknown. We aimed to describe racial differences in the prevalence of CD and PWAG, and evaluate the trends of CD in the noninstitutionalized civilian adult population of the US between 1988 and 2012.Methods:A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1988 to 1994, 1999 to 2004, and 2009 to 2012. Serum samples from the NHANES participants were tested for CD serology, which included IgA tissue transglutaminase (tTG IgA) and, if findings were abnormal, for IgA endomysial antibodies. Information about adherence to a gluten-free diet was obtained by means of an interviewer-administered questionnaire.Results:In NHANES 2009-2012, the adjusted prevalence of CD was significantly higher (P<0.0001) among non-Hispanic whites (1.0%) than among non-Hispanic blacks (0.2%) and Hispanics (0.3%), whereas the adjusted prevalence of PWAG was significantly higher (P=0.01) in blacks (1.2%) as compared with Hispanics (0.5%) and whites (0.7%). The seroprevalence of CD in adults aged 50 years and older increased from 0.17% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03-0.33) in 1988-1994 to 0.44% (95% CI 0.24-0.81) in 2009-2012 (P<0.05).Conclusions:The overall prevalence of CD increased between 1988 and 2012 and is significantly more common in whites. In addition, a higher proportion of individuals maintaining a gluten-free diet in the absence of a diagnosis of CD are blacks.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 10 February 2015; doi:10.1038/ajg.2015.8.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/ajg.2015.8 · 9.21 Impact Factor

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