Article

Applicability of the nipple-areola complex-sparing mastectomy - A prediction model using mammography to estimate risk of nipple-areola complex involvement in breast cancer patients

Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, United States
Annals of Plastic Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.46). 06/2006; 56(5):498-504; discussion 504. DOI: 10.1097/01.sap.0000216946.83252.e4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to develop a prediction model that can be used to identify breast cancer patients at lowest risk for neoplastic nipple-areola complex (NAC) involvement to offer total NAC-sparing mastectomy with immediate reconstruction. Medical records, pathology slides, and mammograms were reviewed for all breast cancer patients treated with total mastectomy at Rhode Island Hospital between 2000 and 2004. The distance between the nipple and the closest tumor margin was measured using mammography. NAC involvement was identified in 42% of the 31 study patients. Mammographic distance, pathologic stage, and tumor size were identified as independent predictors of malignant NAC involvement by multivariate analysis (rho < 0.05). Based on these predictors, a linear discriminant score, the NAC Involvement Score (NACIS), was computed to distinguish between the presence and absence of NAC involvement. For individual patients, positive NACIS values (> or = -0.3665) were associated with NAC involvement with a sensitivity of 92%, specificity of 77%, and negative predictive value of 93%. These preliminary findings indicate that the NACIS formula may be a useful clinical tool for selecting low-risk patients for total NAC-sparing mastectomy with immediate reconstruction.

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    ABSTRACT: Background. Skin and nipple areola sparing mastectomy (NASM) has recently gained popularity as the management of breast cancer. This study aims to evaluate the aesthetic outcome, patient satisfaction, and oncological safety of NASM. Methods. The study prospectively analyzes the results of NASM and immediate breast reconstruction in 34 women with breast cancer. The criteria for inclusion were core biopsy-proven, peripherally located breast cancer of any tumor size and with any "N" status, with documented negative intraoperative frozen section biopsy of retroareolar tissue, and distance from the nipple to tumor margin >2 cm on mammography. Results. The median age of the patients was 45 years. The majority had either stage II or stage III breast cancer. The median mammographic distance of tumor from nipple areola complex (NAC) was 3.8 cm. The overall operative morbidity was minimal. The NAC could be preserved in all the patients. There was no local recurrence of tumor at median follow-up of 28.5 months. The aesthetic outcomes were satisfactory. Conclusion. NASM and immediate breast reconstruction can be successfully achieved with minimal morbidity and very low risk of local recurrence in appropriately selected breast cancer patients, with acceptable aesthetic results and good patient satisfaction.
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