Complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy.
ABSTRACT As antiretroviral treatment regimens become more potent and easier to administer, differences in the rates of adverse events and complications associated with treatment will increasingly drive decisions regarding the selection of therapy. This year's Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections featured a wide range of research directed toward understanding the pathogenesis, treatment, and long-term consequences of complications associated with HIV infection and the use of antiretroviral therapy in both resource-limited settings and in the developed world. This review will summarize information on complications of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings, hepatitis C virus, tuberculosis, and discussion of metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal complications.
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ABSTRACT: BackgroundThe rapid evolution in disease burdens in low- and middle income countries is forcing policy makers to re-orient their health system towards a system which has the capability to simultaneously address infectious and non-communicable diseases. This paper draws on two different but overlapping studies which examined how actors in the Zambian health system are re-directing their policies, strategies and service structures to include the provision of health care for people with chronic conditions.MethodsStudy methods in both studies included semi-structured interviews with government health officials at national level, and governmental and non-governmental health practitioners operating from community-, primary health care to hospital facility level. Focus group discussions were conducted with staff, stakeholders and caregivers of programmes providing care and support at community- and household levels. Study settings included urban and rural sites.ResultsA series of adaptations transformed the HIV programme from an emergency response into the first large chronic care programme in the country. There are clear indications that the Zambian government is intending to expand this reach to patients with non-communicable diseases. Challenges to do this effectively include a lack of proper NCD prevalence data for planning, a concentration of technology and skills to detect and treat NCDs at secondary and tertiary levels in the health system and limited interest by donor agencies to support this transition.ConclusionThe reorientation of Zambia’s health system is in full swing and uses the foundation of a decentralised health system and presence of local models for HIV chronic care which actively involve community partners, patients and their families. There are early warning signs which could cause this transition to stall, one of which is the financial capability to resource this process.BMC Health Services Research 07/2014; 14(1):295. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-14-295 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The highly active antiretroviral therapy used against Human Immunodeficiency Virus provides an improvement in laboratory and clinical findings of patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. However, metabolic and morphologic disturbances associated with the therapy are being investigated. The drawn out use of these therapy has an important impact on the nutritional status of the patients. Before the use of this therapy, weight loss and malnutrition caused by opportunistic infections were the biggest nutritional problems. Nowadays the main discussion points are the resulting metabolic and morphologic complications, among them lipodystrophy with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, osteopenia and altered distribution of body fat, thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Nutrition plays an essential role in supporting the health of these patients, integrating the multidisciplinary teams, improving antiretroviral therapy adherence rates and disease prognosis. However, in order to better understand the therapy, the side effect rates and the nutritional profile of these patients on the short and long run, it is vital to study this subject more deeply to obtain perspectives of a safer therapeutic regimen within its methodological scope, improving the quality of life of these patients.Revista de Nutrição 08/2008; 21(4):439-446. · 0.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent despite improved antiretroviral therapies. A HAND-specific biomarker indicative of neuropsychological impairment (NPI) would give insight into disease progression and aid clinicians in designing therapy. Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) proteins such as tumor susceptibility gene (TSG)-101, vacuolar protein sorting (VPS)-4 and LIP-5 are important for HIV replication and recently antiviral interferon stimulated gene (ISG)-15 was proposed as a biomarker for CNS injury. Here, we analyzed a well-characterized cohort of HIV+ cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and postmortem brain specimens for multiple vesicular trafficking proteins and a related innate immune protein, ISG-15, TSG-101, VPS-4 and LIP-5. All protein levels trended higher with increased NPI and neuropathology. ISG-15 CSF levels were increased in HIV encephalitis (HIVE) compared to normal cases, and three quarters of HIVE samples had above average CSF ISG-15 levels. VPS-4 CSF levels were increased in NPI/NPI-O compared to normal patients. VPS-4 CSF levels in HIV-associated dementia were equivalent to that of normal patients. LIP-5 CSF levels positively correlate with ISG-15 levels, and higher than average ISG-15 levels indicate elevated viral load. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses show increased expression of ISG-15, VPS-4 and LIP-5 in neuronal cell bodies and astroglial cells. ESCRT protein CSF levels analyzed in conjunction with viral load may be indicative of NPI stage, and may aid in the diagnosis and design of therapies for HIV patients. Further studies on the ESCRT protein expression during HIV infection may lead to a promising biomarker for predicting progression of NPI.Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 11/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11481-013-9511-3 · 3.17 Impact Factor