Testosterone induces neuroprotection from oxidative stress. Effects on catalase activity and 3-nitro-L-tyrosine incorporation into alpha-tubulin in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line.
ABSTRACT 3-nitro-L-tyrosine is formed by nitric oxide following different pathways such as NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase or glutamate NMDA receptor activation and is involved in the pathology of different neurological disorders. Unlike estradiol, a neuroprotective role of androgens against oxidative cell injury has not been fully investigated. This work targets the possible effects of testosterone on neuroblastoma cells exposed to 3-nitro-L-tyrosine. C1300 mouse undifferentiated neuroblastoma cells exposed to 3-nitro-L-tyrosine were cultured in the presence of testosterone. Morphological examination, proliferation and nuclear viability assays were performed. The expression of tyrosinated alpha-tubulin and incorporation of 3-nitro-L-tyrosine into protein were also estimated. Cells exposed to 3-nitro-L-tyrosine showed globular shape, reduced cytoplasmic processes and growth inhibition in comparison with controls. When testosterone was added to the medium, these changes were not evident. In addition, testosterone induced an upregulation of tyrosinated alpha-tubulin, a marker of neuronal plasticity, and a decrease in 3-nitro-L-tyrosine incorporation into tubulin. Our results suggest that testosterone exposure can diminish 3-nitro-L-tyrosine toxic effects on the morphology and growth rate of neuroblastoma cells. The upregulation of tyrosinated alpha-tubulin in testosterone-exposed cells would be consistent with concurrent plasticity events. Failure in alpha-tubulin nitration detected in cells exposed to both 3-nitro-L-tyrosine and testosterone, may support the idea that testosterone interferes with 3-nitro-L-tyrosine protein incorporation. Moreover, testosterone-induced neuroprotection likely entails a linkage with the androgen receptor as is suggested by the flutamide-induced inhibition of the hormone activity. Finally, the neuroprotective effects of testosterone in neuroblastoma cells could deal with the cellular antioxidant defence system, as shown by testosterone-induced increase in catalase activity.
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of testosterone, but no previous study has examined the neuroprotective effects of testosterone on spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether testosterone could protect the spinal cord from ischemia/reperfusion injury.Injury 11/2014; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The use of testosterone among aging men has been increasing, but results from studies addressing the effectiveness of testosterone replacement therapy have been equivocal. Objective: Given our prior pre-clinical studies that reported a major influence of oxidative stress on testosterone's neuroprotective effects, we investigated whether the negative effects of testosterone on brain function were predicted by oxidative load. Methods: In order to test our hypothesis, we determined whether circulating total testosterone and luteinizing hormone correlated with cognition in a subset of the Texas Alzheimer's Research & Care Consortium (TARCC) cohort, consisting of Caucasian (n = 116) and Mexican-American (n = 117) men. We also assessed whether oxidative stress (as indexed by homocysteine levels) modified this relationship between sex hormones and cognition, and whether the levels of two antioxidants, superoxide dismutase-1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST), varied as a function of circulating testosterone. Results: In a low oxidative stress environment, testosterone was positively associated with the level of the antioxidant, GST, while no deleterious effects on cognitive function were noted. In contrast, under conditions of high oxidative stress (homocysteine levels >12 μM), testosterone and luteinizing hormone were associated with cognitive impairment, but only among Caucasians. The ethnic difference was attributed to significantly higher GST levels among Mexican-Americans. Conclusion: While testosterone may be beneficial under conditions of low oxidative stress, testosterone appears to have negative consequences under conditions of elevated oxidative stress, but only in Caucasians. Mexican-Americans, however, were protected from any deleterious effects of testosterone, potentially due to higher levels of endogenous antioxidant defenses such as GST.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 02/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The vasodilatator effects of testosterone have been widely studied and demonstrated. Based on previous studies of these vasodilatatory activities, we hypothesized that testosterone might have potential effects on subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm.Acta Neurochirurgica 09/2014; · 1.79 Impact Factor