Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) and 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA), two naturally occurring benzoxazinones contained in sprouts of Gramineae are potent aneugens in human-derived liver cells (HepG2).
ABSTRACT Benzoxazinoids (BAs) are toxic constituents of sprouts of Gramineae such as wheat, maize and rye and are part of the plant defence system against pests. In the last years, sprouts have been increasingly consumed as health foods and are also used for the production of dietary supplements. In the present study we investigated the mutagenic activities of the two most abundant BAs, namely 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) and 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA) in the Salmonella/microsome assay and additionally, in micronucleus (MN) assay and single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay in a human-derived liver cell line (HepG2). DIBOA caused significant induction of his(+) revertants in all three strains in the range between 0.02 and 0.50 mg/plate; the highest activity was observed in TA100 (fivefold increase over the background at the highest dose level). The effect in YG1024 (a derivative of TA98 with increased acetyltransferase activity) was only slightly higher than the effect in the parental strain indicating that acetylation plays no crucial role in the activation of this BA. DIMBOA was in general less active and a positive result was only seen in the base substitution strain (TA100). Addition of rat liver homogenate (S9-mix) led to a significant (ca. twofold) increase of the mutagenic activities of both BAs. In SCGE assays with HepG2 cells consistently negative results were obtained with both compounds whereas in MN assays significant dose dependent effects were observed under similar experimental conditions. DIMBOA caused significant effects already at concentrations > or =1 microM; at the highest dose (20 microM) the MN frequency was sevenfold higher than the background level. DIBOA caused weaker effects and was positive at doses > or =2.5 microM, the maximal induction (twofold over background) was observed with 20 microM. Overall, DIMBOA was ca. 30-fold more active as DIBOA. Subsequent experiments with pancentromeric probes showed that >80% of the MN induced at the highest doses gave a centromere positive signal indicating that both BAs are aneugenic. This is an interesting observation as it is assumed that aneuploidy is a key event in cancer induction and at present no other aneugenic plant-derived substances of dietary relevance are known.
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ABSTRACT: The human hepatoma line (Hep G2) has retained the activities of various phase I and phase II enzymes which play a crucial role in the activation/detoxification of genotoxic procarcinogens and reflect the metabolism of such compounds in vivo better than experimental models with metabolically incompetent cells and exogenous activation mixtures. In the last years, methodologies have been developed which enable the detection of genotoxic effects in Hep G2 cells. Appropriate endpoints are the induction of 6-TGr mutants, of micronuclei and of comets (single cell gel electrophoresis assay). It has been demonstrated that various classes of environmental carcinogens such as nitrosamines, aflatoxins, aromatic and heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be detected in genotoxicity assays with Hep G2 cells. Furthermore, it has been shown that these assays can distinguish between structurally related carcinogens and non-carcinogens, and positive results have been obtained with rodent carcinogens (such as safrole and hexamethylphosphoramide) which give false negative results in conventional in vitro assays with rat liver homogenates. Hep G2 cells have also been used in antimutagenicity studies and can identify mechanisms not detected in conventional in vitro systems such as induction of detoxifying enzymes, inactivation of endogenously formed DNA-reactive metabolites and intracellular inhibition of activating enzymes.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 07/1998; 402(1-2):185-202. · 3.90 Impact Factor
- Science 07/1999; 284(5423):2091-2. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence from human and animal cancer cytogenetics indicates that aneuploidy is an important chromosome change in carcinogenesis. Aneuploidy may be associated with a primary event of carcinogenesis in some cancers and a later change in other tumors. Evidence from in vitro cell transformation studies supports the idea that aneuploidy has a direct effect on the conversion of a normal cell to a preneoplastic or malignant cell. Induction of an aneuploid state in a preneoplastic or neoplastic cell could have any of the following four biological effects: a change in gene dosage, a change in gene balance, expression of a recessive mutation, or a change in genetic instability (which could secondarily lead to neoplasia). To understand the role of aneuploidy in carcinogenesis, cellular and molecular studies coupled with the cytogenetic studies will be required. There are a number of possible mechanisms by which chemicals might induce aneuploidy, including effects on microtubules, damage to essential elements for chromosome function (ie, centromeres, origins of replication, and telomeres), reduction in chromosome condensation or pairing, induction of chromosome interchanges, unresolved recombination structures, increased chromosome stickiness, damage to centrioles, impairment of chromosome alignment, ionic alterations during mitosis, damage to the nuclear membrane, and a physical disruption of chromosome segregation. Therefore, a number of different targets exist for chemically induced aneuploidy. Because the ability of certain chemicals to induce aneuploidy differs between mammalian cells and lower eukaryotic cells, it is important to study the mechanisms of aneuploidy induction in mammalian cells and to use mammalian cells in assays for potential aneuploidogens (chemicals that induce aneuploidy). Despite the wide use of mammalian cells for studying chemically induced mutagenesis and chromosome breakage, aneuploidy studies with mammalian cells are limited. The lack of a genetic assay with mammalian cells for aneuploidy is a serious limitation in these studies.Environmental Mutagenesis 02/1986; 8(1):129-59.