Sex Differences in the Effect of Education on Depression: Resource Multiplication or Resource Substitution?
University of Texas at Austin, USA.Social Science & Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.89). 10/2006; 63(5):1400-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.03.013
Does education improve psychological well-being more for one sex than for the other? Resource substitution theory hypothesizes that education improves well-being more for women, because socioeconomic disadvantage makes them depend more on education to achieve well-being. Resource multiplication implies the opposite, that education improves well-being more for men, because they get bigger labor market payoffs from it such as authority and earnings. Data from a 1995 survey of US adults with follow-ups in 1998 and 2001 support the resource substitution hypothesis. Depression decreases more steeply for women than for men as the level of education increases. The gender gap in depression essentially disappears among persons with a college degree or higher. Two mediating interactions appear to account for the convergence. Education increases work creativity more sharply for women than for men, thereby reducing depression. Education increases the sense of control for both sexes equally, but depression declines more steeply for women as sense of control increases. Growth curve analyses of depression vectors confirm the resource substitution pattern. The adulthood life course pattern of depression levels and changes depends more strongly on education for women than for men.
Population Research and Policy Review 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11113-015-9377-6 · 0.76 Impact Factor
- "Drawing on theories of resource substitution and multiplication (Ross and Mirwosky 2006), this study examines the extent to which several key resources— marriage, employment, income, healthy lifestyles—moderate the mortality benefits of educational attainment among U.S. adults. We find that the benefits are contingent on several of these resources, especially for women. "
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- "Although not established in previous research, a learning problem could potentially affect mental health in much the same way as other chronic stressors, not only because it causes increased difficulty in employment, education, and social settings (Horowitz, 2006), but also because it often results in lower educational attainment (Beitchman, Wilson, Douglas, Young, & Adlaf, 2001). Higher education has been associated with decreased depression, specifically for women (Ross & Mirowsky, 2006). Also, a primary correlate of increased depression found in extant literature is the perception of decreased control over one's life (Mirowsky & Ross, 2003). "
ABSTRACT: Little is known about relationships between barriers to self-sufficiency in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) population. This study utilized ordinary least squares regression to analyze secondary data from a nonprobability sample of 2,156 women TANF recipients to examine learning problems as a predictor of depressive symptomology. After controlling for substance abuse, intimate partner violence victimization, physical health problems, demographics, and difficulty with interpersonal relationships, learning problems significantly predicted depressive symptomology. Findings suggest that many TANF recipients with learning problems are at an increased risk of experiencing depressive symptomology. To assist these individuals with overcoming mental health issues, underlying causes should be identified and addressed.Journal of Poverty 02/2015; 19(2). DOI:10.1080/10875549.2014.991890
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- "Yan, Huang, Wu, & Qin, 2011), cognitive decline (e.g. Paterniti, Verdier-Taillefer, Dufouil, & Alp erovitch, 2002), the occurrence of chronic medical conditions (Ostergaard & Foldager, 2011), as well as lower education (Ross & Mirowsky, 2006) and scarce physical activity favor the onset of depression among the elders (for a review, see Djernes, 2006). Regarding physical activity, Wang and MacMillan (2013) have noted that gardening provides important mental health benefits. "
ABSTRACT: DOWNLOAD the WHOLE PAPER FOR FREE at http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/iuMStFQbtZ8CmPj7aKFK/full ABSTRACT; Objectives: There is controversial evidence concerning the variables favoring depression in community-dwelling elderly individuals. This study mainly investigates the impact of lifestyle, residential environment, cognitive efficiency and social desirability in predicting self-assessed depressive signs in late adult span. Method: One hundred forty-nine elders were recruited in Northern Italy and Sardinia - an Italian island characterized by the longevity of people living in the inner areas. Participants were presented a battery of questionnaires assessing cognitive efficiency and self-referent measures of depression, metacognition and social desirability. Results: A hierarchical regression analysis showed that residential environment was the most effective predictor of depressive symptoms, along with gardening and spending time for hobbies. In contrast, social desirability and metacognitive scores played a minor role in predicting mental health. An analysis of variance showed that Sardinian elders showed fewer signs of depression than age-matched elders residing in Northern Italy. Conclusion: The Sardinian residential environment is a strong predictor of preserved mental health in late adulthood. In contrast, self-rated metacognitive efficiency and social desirability play a very marginal role in predicting depression among the elderly.Aging and Mental Health 09/2014; DOI:10.1080/13607863.2014.962003 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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