Piperacillin-tazobactam is commonly used to treat infections in ICU patients. Controversial data have been published about the sieving/saturation coefficient (Sc/Sa) of piperacillin during continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT). The objective was to evaluate the Sc/Sa of piperacillin-tazobactam during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) and continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) using AN69 and polysulfone.
Ringer lactate, BSA-containing Ringer lactate and plasma were circulated at 150 ml/min. The ultrafiltrate/dialysis flow was kept at 1,500 ml/min. A bolus was injected and samples were taken. Drugs were measured using HPLC. Sc/Sa was calculated according to standard formula.
Free passage of drugs through the membranes was reported with protein free solutions. In the presence of proteins the Sc/Sa lowered and correlated to protein free fraction. Polysulfone had a significantly higher permeability than AN69 during CVVH.
Drug binding to albumin contributes to the decrease of the Sc/Sa of piperacillin but it does not completely justify the in vivo value obtained by some authors.
"In addition, unbound free drug concentrations are a major determinant of the total antibiotic CL. Drug binding to circulating proteins, such as albumin, contributes to the decrease in the passage of TZP across CRRT membrane, although it cannot completely explain the findings obtained in several clinical studies . Although we considered that protein binding was negligible for CEF and MEM, we did not measure free drug levels for TZP, which has an estimated protein binding of 25 to 30%, and this may be a significant confounder in this setting. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
The use of standard doses of β-lactam antibiotics during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) may result in inadequate serum concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of unadjusted drug regimens (i.e., similar to those used in patients with normal renal function) in patients treated with CRRT and the influence of CRRT intensity on drug clearance.
We reviewed data from 50 consecutive adult patients admitted to our Department of Intensive Care in whom routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics (ceftazidime or cefepime, CEF; piperacillin/tazobactam; TZP; meropenem, MEM) was performed using unadjusted β-lactam antibiotics regimens (CEF = 2 g q8h; TZP = 4 g q6h; MEM = 1 g q8h). Serum drug concentrations were measured twice during the elimination phase by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). We considered therapy was adequate when serum drug concentrations were between 4 and 8 times the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during optimal periods of time for each drug (≥70% for CEF; ≥ 50% for TZP; ≥ 40% for MEM). Therapy was considered as early (ET) or late (LT) phase if TDM was performed within 48 hours of antibiotic initiation or later on, respectively.
We collected 73 serum samples from 50 patients (age 58 ± 13 years; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score on admission 21 (17–25)), 35 during ET and 38 during LT. Drug concentrations were above 4 times the MIC in 63 (90%), but above 8 times the MIC in 39 (53%) samples. The proportions of patients with adequate drug concentrations during ET and LT were quite similar. We found a weak but significant correlation between β-lactam antibiotics clearance and CRRT intensity.
In septic patients undergoing CRRT, doses of β-lactam antibiotics similar to those given to patients with normal renal function achieved drug levels above the target threshold in 90% of samples. Nevertheless, 53% of samples were associated with very high drug levels and daily drug regimens may need to be adapted accordingly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacotherapy in critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) is challenging due to the lack of published information to base dosing regimens.
Daptomycin's transmembrane clearance during continuous hemofiltration and hemodialysis was assessed using an in vitro model with AN69 and polysulfone hemodiafilters at varying ultrafiltrate and dialysate flow rates (1, 2, 3 and 6 l/h).
During continuous hemofiltration, mean daptomycin sieving coefficient ranged from 0.14 to 0.20. Transmembrane clearances were significantly different between filter types for ultrafiltration rates of 2, 3 and 6 l/h. For continuous hemodialysis, mean daptomycin saturation coefficient ranged from 0.05 to 0.15. AN69-based daptomycin clearances were significantly lower than polysulfone values at dialysate flow rates of 2, 3 and 6 l/h.
The extent of daptomycin's transmembrane clearance is dependent on hemodiafilter type, dialysate and ultrafiltration rates. CRRT with high ultrafiltrate or dialysate rates may result in substantial daptomycin clearances.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), particularly continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH) and continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), are gaining increasing relevance in routine clinical management of intensive care unit patients. The application of CRRT, by leading to extracorporeal clearance (CLCRRT), may significantly alter the pharmacokinetic behaviour of some drugs. This may be of particular interest in critically ill patients presenting with life-threatening infections, since the risk of underdosing with antimicrobial agents during this procedure may lead to both therapeutic failure and the spread of breakthrough resistance. The intent of this review is to discuss the pharmacokinetic principles of CLCRRT of antimicrobial agents during the application of CVVH and CVVHDF and to summarise the most recent findings on this topic (from 1996 to December 2006) in order to understand the basis for optimal dosage adjustments of different antimicrobial agents.
Removal of solutes from the blood through semi-permeable membranes during RRT may occur by means of two different physicochemical processes, namely, diffusion or convection. Whereas intermittent haemodialysis (IHD) is essentially a diffusive technique and CVVH is a convective technique, CVVHDF is a combination of both. As a general rule, the efficiency of drug removal by the different techniques is expected to be CVVHDF > CVVH > IHD, but indeed CLCRRT may vary greatly depending mainly on the peculiar physicochemical properties of each single compound and the CRRT device’s characteristics and operating conditions. Considering that RRT substitutes for renal function in clearing plasma, CLCRRT is expected to be clinically relevant for drugs with dominant renal clearance, especially when presenting a limited volume of distribution and poor plasma protein binding. Consistently, CLCRRT should be clinically relevant particularly for most hydrophilic antimicrobial agents (e.g. β-lactams, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides), whereas it should assume much lower relevance for lipophilic compounds (e.g. fluoroquinolones, oxazolidinones), which generally are nonrenally cleared. However, there are some notable exceptions: ceftriax-one and oxacillin, although hydrophilics, are characterised by primary biliary elimination; levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, although lipophilics, are renally cleared. As far as CRRT characteristics are concerned, the extent of drug removal is expected to be directly proportional to the device’s surface area and to be dependent on the mode of replacement fluid administration (predilution or postdilution) and on the ultrafiltration and/or dialysate flow rates applied.
Conversely, drug removal by means of CVVH or CVVHDF is unaffected by the drug size, considering that almost all antimicrobial agents have molecular weights significantly lower (<2000Da) than the haemofilter cut-off (30 000–50 000Da). Drugs that normally have high renal clearance and that exhibit high CLCRRT during CVVH or CVVHDF may need a significant dosage increase in comparison with renal failure or even IHD. Conversely, drugs that are normally nonrenally cleared and that exhibit very low CLCRRT during CVVH or CVVHDF may need no dosage modification in comparison with normal renal function. Bearing these principles in mind will almost certainly aid the management of antimicrobial therapy in critically ill patients undergoing CRRT, thus containing the risk of inappropriate exposure. However, some peculiar pathophys-iological conditions occurring in critical illness may significantly contribute to further alteration of the pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents during CRRT (i.e. hypoalbuminaemia, expansion of extracellular fluids or presence of residual renal function). Accordingly, therapeutic drug monitoring should be considered a very helpful tool for optimising drug exposure during CRRT.
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