In vivo EPR dosimetry to quantify exposures to clinically significant doses of ionising radiation
ABSTRACT As a result of terrorism, accident or war, populations potentially can be exposed to doses of ionising radiation that could cause direct clinical effects within days or weeks. There is a critical need to determine the magnitude of the exposure to individuals so that those with significant risk can have appropriate procedures initiated immediately, while those without a significant probability of acute effects can be reassured and removed from the need for further consideration in the medical/emergency system. It is extremely unlikely that adequate dosemeters will be worn by the potential victims, and it also will be unlikely that prompt and accurate dose reconstruction at the level of individuals will be possible. Therefore, there is a critical need for a method to measure the dose from radiation-induced effects that occur within the individual. In vivo EPR measurements of radiation-induced changes in the enamel of teeth is a method, perhaps the only such method, which can differentiate among doses sufficiently to classify individuals into categories for treatment with sufficient accuracy to facilitate decisions on medical treatment. In its current state, the in vivo EPR dosemeter can provide estimates of absorbed dose of +/- 0.5 Gy in the range from 1 to >10 Gy. The lower limit and the precision are expected to improve, with improvements in the resonator and the algorithm for acquiring and calculating the dose. In its current state of development, the method is already sufficient for decision-making action for individuals with regard to acute effects from exposure to ionising radiation for most applications related to terrorism, accidents or nuclear warfare.
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ABSTRACT: Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry of tooth enamel in X-band has been established as a suitable method for individual reconstruction of doses 0.1 Gy and higher. The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of using Q-band EPR in small biopsy tooth enamel samples to provide accurate measurements of radiation doses. Q-band spectra of small (<10 mg) irradiated samples of dentine and bone were studied to investigate the possibility of using Q-band EPR for dose measurements in those materials if there are limited amounts of enamel available, and there is no time for the chemical sample preparation required for accurate X-band measurements in dental enamel. Our results have shown that Q-band provides accurate measurements of radiation doses higher than 0.5 Gy in tooth enamel biopsy samples as small as 2 mg. Q-band EPR spectra in powdered dentine and bone demonstrated significantly higher resolution and sensitivity than in conventional X-band measurements.Applied Magnetic Resonance 03/2012; 44(3). DOI:10.1007/s00723-012-0379-9 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A comparative study of electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry in Q- and X-bands has shown that Q-band is able to provide accurate measurements of radiation doses even below 0.5 Gy with tooth enamel samples as small as 2 mg. The optimal amount of tooth enamel for dose measurements in Q-band was found to be 4 mg. This is less than 1% of the total amount of tooth enamel in one molar tooth. Such a small amount of tooth enamel can be harmlessly obtained in an emergency requiring after-the-fact radiation dose measurement. The other important advantage of Q-band is full resolution of the radiation-induced EPR signal from the native, background signal. This separation makes dose response measurements much easier in comparison to conventional X-band measurements in which these overlapping signals necessitate special methods for doses below 0.5 Gy. The main disadvantages of Q-band measurements are a higher level of noise and lower spectral reproducibility than in X-band. The effect of these negative factors on the precision of dose measurements in Q-band could probably be reduced by improvement of sample fixation in the resonance cavity and better optimization of signal filtration to reduce high-frequency noise.Health Physics 01/2008; 93(6):631-5. DOI:10.1097/01.HP.0000269507.08343.85 · 0.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vivo EPR tooth dosimetry is a more challenging problem than in vitro EPR dosimetry because of several potential additional sources of variation associated with measurements that are made in the mouth of a living subject. For in vivo measurement a lower RF frequency is used and, unlike in the in vitro studies, the tooth cannot be processed to optimize the amount and configuration of the enamel that is measured. Additional factors involved with in vivo measurements include the reproducibility of positioning the resonator on the surface of the tooth in the mouth, irregular tooth geometry, and the possible influence of environmental noise. Consequently, in addition to using the theoretical and empirical models developed for analyzing data from measurements of teeth in vitro, other unconventional and more robust methods of dose reconstruction may be needed. The experimental parameter of interest is the peak-to-peak amplitude of the spectrum, which is correlated to the radiation dose through a calibration curve to derive the reconstructed dose. In this study we describe and compare the results from seven types of computations to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude for estimation of the radiation induced signal. The data utilized were from three sets of in vivo measurements of irradiated teeth. Six different teeth with different doses were placed in the mouth of a volunteer in situ and measurements of each tooth were carried out on three different days. The standard error of dose prediction (SEP) is used as a figure of merit for quantifying precision of the reconstruction. We found that many of the methods gave fairly similar results, with the best error of prediction resulting from a computation based on a Lorentzian line model whose center field corresponds to the known parameter of the radiation-induced EPR spectra of teeth, with corrections from a standard sample that was measured as part of the data acquisition scheme. When the results from the three days of measurement were pooled, the SEP decreased dramatically, which suggests that one of the principal sources of variation in the data is the ability to precisely standardize the measurements conditions within the mouth. There are very plausible ways to accomplish improvements in the existing procedures.Radiation Measurements 08/2007; 42(6-7):1089-1098. DOI:10.1016/j.radmeas.2007.05.025 · 1.14 Impact Factor