Hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry has been used to study the structural behavior of the pathogenic A4V variant of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in the metal-free (apo) form. Mass spectrometric data revealed that in the disulfide-intact (S-S) form, the A4V variant is destabilized at residues 50-53, in the disulfide subloop of the dimer interface, but many other regions of the A4V protein exhibited hydrogen exchange properties identical to that of the wild type protein. Additionally, mass spectrometry revealed that A4V apoSOD1(S-S) undergoes slow localized unfolding in a large segment of the beta-barrel that included beta3, beta4, and loops II and III. In the disulfide-reduced form, A4V apoSOD1 exchanged like a "random coil" polypeptide at 20 degrees C and began to populate folded states at 4 degrees C. These local and global unfolding events could facilitate intermolecular protein-protein interactions that cause the aggregation or neurotoxicity of A4V SOD1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations at many different sites in the gene encoding human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) are known to be causative agents in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). One explanation for the molecular basis of this pathology is the aggregation of marginally soluble, partially structured states whose populations are enhanced in the protein variants. As a benchmark for testing this hypothesis, the equilibrium and kinetic properties of the reversible folding reaction of a metal-free variant of SOD were investigated. Reversibility was achieved by replacing the two non-essential cysteine residues with non-oxidizable analogs, C6A/C111S, to produce apo-AS-SOD. The metal-free pseudo-wild-type protein is folded and dimeric in the absence of chemical denaturants, and its equilibrium folding behavior is well described by an apparent two-state mechanism involving the unfolded monomer and the native dimer. The apparent free energy of folding in the absence of denaturant and at standard state is -20.37(+/- 1.04) kcal (mol dimer)(-1). A global analysis of circular dichroism kinetic traces for both unfolding and refolding reactions, combined with results from small angle X-ray scattering and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements, supports a sequential mechanism involving the unfolded monomer, a folded monomeric intermediate, and the native dimer. The rate-limiting monomer folding reaction is followed by a near diffusion-limited self-association reaction to form the native dimer. The relative population of the folded monomeric intermediate is predicted not to exceed 0.5% at micromolar concentrations of protein under equilibrium and both strongly unfolding and refolding conditions for metal-free pseudo-wild-type SOD.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.