Regulation of RhoGEF activity by intramolecular and intermolecular SH3 domain interactions.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06019-4301, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 08/2006; 281(27):18774-86. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M512482200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT RhoGEFs are central controllers of small G-proteins in cells and are regulated by several mechanisms. There are at least 22 human RhoGEFs that contain SH3 domains, raising the possibility that, like several other enzymes, SH3 domains control the enzymatic activity of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domains through intra- and/or intermolecular interactions. The structure of the N-terminal SH3 domain of Kalirin was solved using NMR spectroscopy, and it folds much like other SH3 domains. However, NMR chemical shift mapping experiments showed that this Kalirin SH3 domain is unique, containing novel cooperative binding site(s) for intramolecular PXXP ligands. Intramolecular Kalirin SH3 domain/ligand interactions, as well as binding of the Kalirin SH3 domain to the adaptor protein Crk, inhibit the GEF activity of Kalirin. This study establishes a novel molecular mechanism whereby intramolecular and intermolecular Kalirin SH3 domain/ligand interactions modulate GEF activity, a regulatory mechanism that is likely used by other RhoGEF family members.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vav proteins are phosphorylation-dependent guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that catalyze the activation of members of the Rho family of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases). The current regulatory model holds that the nonphosphorylated, catalytically inactive state of these GEFs is maintained by intramolecular interactions among the amino-terminal domains and the central catalytic core, which block the binding of Vav proteins to GTPases. We showed that this autoinhibition is mechanistically more complex, also involving the bivalent association of the carboxyl-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) region of Vav with its catalytic and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains. Such interactions occurred through proline-rich region-independent mechanisms. Full release from this double-locked state required synergistic weakening effects from multiple phosphorylated tyrosine residues, thus providing an optimized system to generate gradients of Vav GEF activity depending on upstream signaling inputs. This mechanism is shared by mammalian and Drosophila melanogaster Vav proteins, suggesting that it may be a common regulatory feature for this protein family.
    Science Signaling 04/2014; 7(321):ra35. DOI:10.1126/scisignal.2004993 · 7.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The conductivity of a glutaraldehyde fixative solution for electron microscopy was measured over the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz and over the temperature range of 20 to 40 OC. No dispersion is exhibited over this frequency range. The conductivity of the solution changes with temperature by about 0.01 S/m/OC.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The short isoform of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF5 is known as TIM, which plays diverse roles in, for example, tumorigenesis, neuronal development and Src-induced podosome formation through the activation of its substrates, the Rho family of GTPases. The activation is auto-inhibited by a putative helix N-terminal to the DH domain of TIM, which is stabilized by the intramolecular interaction of C-terminal SH3 domain with a poly-proline sequence between the putative helix and the DH domain. In this study, we systematically investigated the structural basis, energetic landscape and biological implication underlying TIM auto-inhibition by using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy analysis. The computational study revealed that the binding of SH3 domain to poly-proline sequence is the prerequisite for the stabilization of TIM auto-inhibition. Thus, it is suggested that targeting SH3 domain with competitors of the poly-proline sequence would be a promising strategy to relieve the auto-inhibitory state of TIM. In this consideration, we rationally designed a number of peptide aptamers for competitively inhibiting the SH3 domain based on modeled TIM structure and computationally generated data. Peptide binding test and guanine nucleotide exchange analysis solidified that these designed peptides can both bind to the SH3 domain potently and activate TIM-catalyzed RhoA exchange reaction effectively. Interestingly, a positive correlation between the peptide affinity and induced exchange activity was observed. In addition, separate mutation of three conserved residues Pro49, Pro52 and Lys54 –– they are required for peptide recognition by SH3 domain –– in a designed peptide to Ala would completely abolish the capability of this peptide activating TIM. All these come together to suggest an intrinsic relationship between peptide binding to SH3 domain and the activation of TIM.
    Biochimie 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.biochi.2015.01.011 · 3.12 Impact Factor