Regulation of RhoGEF activity by intramolecular and intermolecular SH3 domain interactions
ABSTRACT RhoGEFs are central controllers of small G-proteins in cells and are regulated by several mechanisms. There are at least 22 human RhoGEFs that contain SH3 domains, raising the possibility that, like several other enzymes, SH3 domains control the enzymatic activity of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domains through intra- and/or intermolecular interactions. The structure of the N-terminal SH3 domain of Kalirin was solved using NMR spectroscopy, and it folds much like other SH3 domains. However, NMR chemical shift mapping experiments showed that this Kalirin SH3 domain is unique, containing novel cooperative binding site(s) for intramolecular PXXP ligands. Intramolecular Kalirin SH3 domain/ligand interactions, as well as binding of the Kalirin SH3 domain to the adaptor protein Crk, inhibit the GEF activity of Kalirin. This study establishes a novel molecular mechanism whereby intramolecular and intermolecular Kalirin SH3 domain/ligand interactions modulate GEF activity, a regulatory mechanism that is likely used by other RhoGEF family members.
- SourceAvailable from: Henry Todd Keutmann
- "pGEX.GST-KGEF1, -KGEF1→7end and its mutants were purified as described (Alam et al., 1997; Penzes et al., 2001; Schiller et al., 2006). The pGEX-GST-Rac1 vector was a gift from Dr. Richard Cerione (Cornell University). "
Article: Regulation of Kalirin by Cdk5[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Kalirin, one of the few Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that contains spectrin-like repeats, plays a critical role in axon extension and maintenance of dendritic spines. PC12 cells were used to determine whether Cdk5, a critical participant in both processes, regulates the action of Kalirin. Expression of Kalirin-7 in nondifferentiated PC12 cells caused GEF-activity-dependent extension of broad cytoplasmic protrusions; coexpression of dominant-negative Cdk5 largely eliminated this response. The spectrin-like repeat region of Kalirin plays an essential role in this response, which is not mimicked by the GEF domain alone. Thr1590, which follows the first GEF domain of Kalirin, is the only Cdk5 phosphorylation site in Kalirin-7. Although mutant Kalirin-7 with Ala1590 retains GEF activity, it is unable to cause extension of protrusions. Kalirin-7 with an Asp1590 mutation has slightly increased GEF activity and dominant-negative Cdk5 fails to block its ability to cause extension of protrusions. Phosphorylation of Thr1590 causes a slight increase in GEF activity and Kalirin-7 solubility. Dendritic spines formed by cortical neurons in response to the expression of Kalirin-7 with Ala1590 differ in shape from those formed in response to wild-type Kalirin-7 or Kalirin-7 containing Asp1590. The presence of Thr1590 in each major Kalirin isoform would allow Cdk5 to regulate Kalirin function throughout development.Journal of Cell Science 08/2008; 121(Pt 15):2601-11. DOI:10.1242/jcs.016089 · 5.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The conductivity of a glutaraldehyde fixative solution for electron microscopy was measured over the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz and over the temperature range of 20 to 40 OC. No dispersion is exhibited over this frequency range. The conductivity of the solution changes with temperature by about 0.01 S/m/OC.
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ABSTRACT: Asef (herein called Asef1) was identified as a Rac1-specific exchange factor stimulated by adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), contributing to colorectal cancer cell metastasis. We investigated Asef2, an Asef1 homologue having a similar N-terminal APC binding region (ABR) and Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain. Contrary to previous reports, we found that Asef1 and Asef2 exchange activity is Cdc42 specific. Moreover, the ABR of Asef2 did not function independently but acted in tandem with the SH3 domain to bind APC. The ABRSH3 also bound the C-terminal tail of Asef2, allowing it to function as an autoinhibitory module within the protein. Deletion of the C-terminal tail did not constitutively activate Asef2 as predicted; rather, a conserved C-terminal segment was required for augmented Cdc42 GDP/GTP exchange. Thus, Asef2 activation involves APC releasing the ABRSH3 from the C-terminal tail, resulting in Cdc42 exchange. These results highlight a novel exchange factor regulatory mechanism and establish Asef1 and Asef2 as Cdc42 exchange factors, providing a more appropriate context for understanding the contribution of APC in establishing cell polarity and migration.Molecular and Cellular Biology 03/2007; 27(4):1380-93. DOI:10.1128/MCB.01608-06 · 5.04 Impact Factor