Dietary glycemic index of human immunodeficiency virus-positive men with and without fat deposition
ABSTRACT This study focused on dietary glycemic index because insulin resistance can be important in the pathogenesis of fat deposition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We evaluated differences in past dietary glycemic intake between men with HIV who developed fat deposition and those who did not. This was a nested case-control study consisting of 37 cases and 37 controls from the Nutrition for Healthy Living cohort. Food records from 6 to 24 months prior to development of fat deposition in cases were analyzed and compared with controls. Cases were defined as men with a waist-to-hip ratio >0.95 and body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) between 23 and 26. Controls were matched by age, race, body mass index, highly active antiretroviral therapy use, and CD4 count. Food records were analyzed using t tests for normally distributed nutrients and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for nutrients with skewed distributions. Glycemic index was calculated for each meal and day. There was no significant difference in glycemic index for meals and day between participants with or without fat deposition. Both groups had a moderate dietary glycemic index intake. This study showed no association between dietary glycemic index and development of fat deposition in HIV. Instead, results of this study depict the potential benefits associated with eating high-quality diets, primarily adequate fiber and protein intake. Diet can be important in preventing development of fat deposition in patients with HIV.
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ABSTRACT: It has been suggested in the literature that cut-off points based on waist circumference (waist action levels) should replace cut-off points based on body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio in identifying subjects with overweight or obesity. In this article, we examine the sensitivity and specificity of the cut-off points when applied to 19 populations with widely different prevalences of overweight. Our design was a cross-sectional study based on random population samples. A total of 32,978 subjects aged 25-64 years from 19 male and 18 female populations participating in the second MONICA survey from 1987 to 1992 were included in this study. We found that at waist action level 1 (waist circumference > or =94 cm in men and > or =80 cm in women), sensitivity varied between 40% and 80% in men and between 51% and 86% in women between populations when compared with the cut-off points based on BMI (> or =25 kg/m2) and waist-to-hip ratio (> or =0.95 for men, > or =0.80 for women). Specificity was high (> or =90%) in all populations. At waist action level 2 (waist circumference > or =102 cm and > or =88 cm in men and women, respectively, BMI > or =30 kg/m2), sensitivity varied from 22% to 64% in men and from 26% to 67% in women, whereas specificity was >95% in all populations. Sensitivity was in general lowest in populations in which overweight was relatively uncommon, whereas it was highest in populations with relatively high prevalence of overweight. We propose that cut-off points based on waist circumference as a replacement for cut-off points based on BMI and waist-to-hip ratio should be viewed with caution. Based on the proposed waist action levels, very few people would unnecessarily be advised to have weight management, but a varying proportion of those who would need it might be missed. The optimal screening cut-off points for waist circumference may be population specific.Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 12/1999; 52(12):1213-24. DOI:10.1016/S0895-4356(99)00114-6 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dietary glycemic index, an indicator of the ability of the carbohydrate to raise blood glucose levels, and glycemic load, the product of glycemic index and carbohydrate intake, have been positively related to risk of coronary heart disease. However, the relationships between glycemic index and glycemic load and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration in the US population are unknown. Using data from 13 907 participants aged 20 years and older in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), we examined the relationships between glycemic index and glycemic load, which were determined from a food frequency questionnaire and HDL-C concentration. The age-adjusted mean HDL-C concentrations for increasing quintiles of glycemic index distribution were 1.38, 1.32, 1.30, 1.26, and 1.27 mmol/L (P<.001 for trend). (To convert millimoles per liter to milligrams per deciliter, divide by 0.0259.) After additional adjustment for sex, ethnicity, education, smoking status, body mass index, alcohol intake, physical activity, energy fraction from carbohydrates and fat, and total energy intake, the mean HDL-C concentrations for ascending quintiles of glycemic index were 1.36, 1.31, 1.30, 1.27, and 1.28 mmol/L (P<.001 for trend). Adjusting for the same covariates and considering glycemic index as a continuous variable, we found a change in HDL-C concentration of -0.06 mmol/L per 15-unit increase in glycemic index (P<.001). The multiple R(2) for the model was 0.23. Similarly, the multivariate-adjusted mean HDL-C concentrations for ascending quintiles of glycemic load distribution were 1.35, 1.31, 1.31, 1.30, and 1.26 mmol/L (P<.001 for linear trend). The inverse relationships between glycemic index and glycemic load and HDL-C persisted across all subgroups of participants categorized by sex or body mass index. These findings from a nationally representative sample of US adults suggest that high dietary glycemic index and high glycemic load are associated with a lower concentration of plasma HDL-C.Archives of Internal Medicine 02/2001; 161(4):572-6. DOI:10.1001/archinte.161.4.572 · 13.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Controlled trials have shown that a diet with a low glycemic index improves blood glucose and lipid control in patients with diabetes. To study the distribution and determinants of diet glycemic index, we obtained two 3-d diet records from 342 free-living subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Mean +/- SD 24-h intakes were as follows: energy, 7170 +/- 1890 kJ; fat, 33.6 +/- 6.5% of energy; protein, 20.1 +/- 3.2% of energy; available carbohydrate, 45.3 +/- 7.2% of energy; and dietary fiber, 17.2 +/- 6.4 g. Diet glycemic index values (85.4 +/- 4.55, range, 70-97.8) were normally distributed. Diet glycemic index was inversely associated with intake of simple sugars, whether expressed in grams (r = -0.426), percent of energy (r = -0.446), or percent of carbohydrate (r = -0.453, P < 0.001). By step-wise-multiple-linear regression, grams carbohydrate and percent protein were also independently related to diet glycemic index. Differences in diet glycemic index between men and women, and between subjects on different types of diabetes therapy were explained by differences in intake of simple sugars.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 06/1994; 59(6):1265-9. · 6.92 Impact Factor