Temporal trends of preterm birth subtypes and neonatal outcomes
ABSTRACT To describe temporal trends of preterm birth subtypes, neonatal morbidity, and hospital neonatal mortality.
A database of 1.7 million births that occurred in 51 maternity hospitals in Latin America from 1985 to 2003 was studied. Subgroups of preterm births were classified according to the presence or absence of maternal medical or obstetric complications, spontaneous labor, preterm labor after premature rupture of membranes, induction of labor, or elective cesarean. Outcomes studied, for different periods, were prevalence of small for gestational age, neonatal morbidity, and neonatal mortality.
Spontaneous preterm labor without maternal complications was the most frequent subtype of preterm birth (60%), followed by premature rupture of membranes without maternal complications. Preterm births due to elective induction and delivery by elective cesarean increased markedly in the last 20 years, from 10% in 1985-1990 to 18.5% in recent years. Neonates born after spontaneous labor without maternal complications had the lowest mortality rate, but their large numbers made them responsible for one half of the preterm mortality. The induction followed by elective cesarean subgroups accounted for 13.4% of the preterm deaths between 1985 and 1990 and increased to 21.2% between 1996 and 2003.
Spontaneous labor in mothers without maternal complications is the most frequent cause of preterm births and is also the most important subgroup related to neonatal mortality. However, preterm births due to induction of labor or elective cesarean are increasing in Latin America and are becoming important contributors to neonatal mortality.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the trends and risk factors of preterm birth from all the women who delivered during 2001-2009 in Taiwan.Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 06/2014; 40(6):1547-54. DOI:10.1111/jog.12400 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental abruption are serious obstetrical complications that constitute the syndrome of ischemic placental disease and account for a disproportionate degree of perinatal morbidity and mortality. We review the risks of stillbirth and neonatal and infant mortality in relation to ischemic placental disease, focusing on population-based studies. We also review the risks of neonatal morbidity and neurodevelopmental outcomes in relation to ischemic placental disease. A synthesis of the findings of the relevant studies relating ischemic placental disease to adverse perinatal outcomes underscores two important observations. First, despite the low prevalence of each of the three obstetrical complications, all are associated with increased risks of adverse perinatal and infant outcomes, as well as neurodevelopmental deficits. Second, the burden of increased perinatal risks appears strongest during the preterm period. Efforts to reduce the risks of ischemic placental disease remain critically important and developing effective clinical interventions will be a target worthy for consideration.Seminars in Perinatology 04/2014; 38(3):151-158. DOI:10.1053/j.semperi.2014.03.007 · 2.42 Impact Factor
Article: Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal, and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition, and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth. Together, this array of clinical interventions, each based on a substantial body of evidence, is likely to reduce rates of preterm birth and prevent death and disability in large numbers of children. The process begins with an acceptance that early birth is not an inevitable and natural feature of human reproduction. Preventative strategies are now available and need to be applied. The best outcomes may come from developing integrated strategies designed specifically for each health-care environment.Frontiers in Immunology 11/2014; 5:584. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00584