Efficacy study of suppressive vaginal metronidazole in reducing recurrent symptomatic episodes of bacterial vaginosis.
Multicenter prospective study with initial 10-day open-label metronidazole gel in which asymptomatic responders randomly assigned to receive twice weekly metronidazole vaginal gel or placebo for 16 weeks and off therapy for 12 weeks.
Of 157 eligible women with recurrent bacterial vaginosis, 112 of 127 returning evaluable women (88.2%) responded clinically and were randomly assigned. During suppressive therapy, recurrent bacterial vaginosis occurred in 13 women (25.5%) receiving metronidazole and 26 (59.1%) receiving placebo (MITT analysis, relative risk [RR] 0.43, CI = 0.25-0.73, P = .001). During the entire 28-week follow-up, recurrence occurred in 26 (51.0%) on treatment compared with 33 (75%) on placebo (RR 0.68, CI = 0.49-0.93, P = .02). Probability for remaining cured was 70% for metronidazole compared with 39% on placebo, which declined to 34% and 18%, respectively, by 28 weeks follow-up. Adverse effects were uncommon; however, secondary vaginal candidiasis occurred significantly more often in metronidazole-treated women (P = .02).
Suppressive therapy with twice-weekly metronidazole gel achieves a significant reduction in the recurrence rate of bacterial vaginosis; however, secondary vaginal candidiasis is common.
"Conventional therapy consists of nitoimidazoles or clindamycin administered orally or topically . Unfortunately, BV can be highly recurrent  with over 50% of women experiencing a symptomatic relapse within 3–12 months following antibiotic therapy . An unexplored intervention for BV is smoking cessation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Smoking has been identified in observational studies as a risk factor for bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition defined in part by decimation of Lactobacillus spp. The anti-estrogenic effect of smoking and trace amounts of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) may predispose women to BV. BPDE increases bacteriophage induction in Lactobacillus spp. and is found in the vaginal secretions of smokers. We compared the vaginal microbiota between smokers and non-smokers and followed microbiota changes in a smoking cessation pilot study.
In 2010–2011, 20 smokers and 20 non-smokers were recruited to a cross-sectional study (Phase A) and 9 smokers were enrolled and followed for a 12-week smoking cessation program (Phase B). Phase B included weekly behavioral counseling and nicotine patches to encourage smoking cessation. In both phases, participants self-collected mid-vaginal swabs (daily, Phase B) and completed behavioral surveys. Vaginal bacterial composition was characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes (V1-V3 regions). Vaginal smears were assigned Nugent Gram stain scores. Smoking status was evaluated (weekly, Phase B) using the semi-quantitative NicAlert® saliva cotinine test and carbon monoxide (CO) exhalation.
In phase A, there was a significant trend for increasing saliva cotinine and CO exhalation with elevated Nugent scores (P value <0.005). Vaginal microbiota clustered into three community state types (CSTs); two dominated by Lactobacillus (L. iners, L. crispatus), and one lacking significant numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and characterized by anaerobes (termed CST-IV). Women who were observed in the low-Lactobacillus CST-IV state were 25-fold more likely to be smokers than those dominated by L. crispatus (aOR: 25.61, 95 % CI: 1.03-636.61). Four women completed Phase B. One of three who entered smoking cessation with high Nugent scores demonstrated a switch from CST-IV to a L.iners-dominated profile with a concomitant drop in Nugent scores which coincided with completion of nicotine patches. The other two women fluctuated between CST-IV and L. iners-dominated CSTs. The fourth woman had low Nugent scores with L. crispatus-dominated CSTs throughout.
Smokers had a lower proportion of vaginal Lactobacillus spp. compared to non-smokers. Smoking cessation should be investigated as an adjunct to reducing recurrent BV. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.
"National surveys estimate that the prevalence of BV among US women is 29% , and, despite the high burden of this disease, the events that precipitate BV remain obscure. BV is particularly troubling for patients and clinicians, as recurrence of BV following antibiotic treatment is common  and the arsenal of treatment includes just two antibiotics, namely, topical or oral metronidazole and clindamycin . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common gynecologic diagnosis characterized by dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiota. It is often accompanied by vaginal symptoms such as odor and discharge, but can be asymptomatic. Despite over 50 years of research, the etiology of BV is not well understood, which is a major impediment to treatment and prevention of BV.
Here we report on the temporal dynamics of 25 vaginal communities over a 10 week period using samples collected daily from women who were diagnosed with symptomatic BV (15 women), asymptomatic BV (6 women), and women who did not have BV (4 women).
This unique resource of samples and data will contribute to a better understanding of the role that the vaginal microbes have in the natural history of BV and lead to improved diagnosis and treatment.
"This may explain the high rate of treatment failure and recurrence that constitutes a major challenge for the clinical management and control of BV. Some authors [11-14] have suggested periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) as response to this challenge; however, the high recurrence rate makes the cost-effectiveness of this strategy questionable . Knowing predictors of BV recurrence may help identify subgroups in whom PPT may be more efficient and prevent BV recurrences and their subsequent adverse health outcomes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundData on risk factors of recurrent bacterial vaginosis (RBV) are still scarce. We used data from female sex workers (FSW) participating in a randomized controlled microbicide trial to examine predictors of BV recurrence.MethodsTrial’s participants with at least an episode of BV which was treated and/or followed by a negative BV result and at least one subsequent visit offering BV testing were included in the analysis. Behavioural and medical data were collected monthly while laboratory testing for STI and genital tract infections were performed quarterly. The Andersen-Gill proportional hazards model was used to determine predictors of BV recurrence both in bivariate and multivariate analyses.Results440 women were included and the incidence rate for RBV was 20.8 recurrences/100 person-months (95% confidence interval (CI) =18.1–23.4). In the multivariate analysis controlling for the study site, recent vaginal cleansing as reported at baseline with adjusted hazard-ratio (aHR)=1.30, 95% CI = 1.02-1.64 increased the risk of BV recurrence, whereas consistent condom use (CCU) with the primary partner (aHR=0.68, 95% CI=0.49-0.93) and vaginal candidiasis (aHR=0.70, 95% CI=0.53-0.93), both treated as time-dependent variables, were associated with decreased risk of RBV.ConclusionThis study confirms the importance of counselling high-risk women with RBV about the adverse effects of vaginal cleansing and the protective effects of condom use with all types of partners for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections, including BV. More prospective studies on risk factors of BV recurrence are warranted.Trial registrationTrial registration:
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