A burden questionnaire for caregivers of peritoneal dialysis patients

Unidad de Diálisis Peritoneal, Servicio de Nefrología, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol. Badalona. BCN.
Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia (Impact Factor: 1.22). 02/2006; 26(1):74-83.
Source: PubMed


Despite the interest generated by the increasing number of studies that measure Quality of Life among patients and caregivers, few of these studies measure the caregivers burden in Peritoneal Dialysis (PD).
The main target of this study was to create a burden measure questionnaire applicable amongst caregivers of PD patients.
Inclusion criteria: 1) Patients had to be in PD treatment for more than 3 months; 2) Patients had to receive help with the PD treatment from a caregiver. The study was divided into 3 phases: 1st) design and use of the initial questionnaire; 2nd) a test-retest on a modified scale; and 3rd) to provide the questionnaire-3 to two collaborative centres with similar PD programs. Four groups of caregivers were established: A1:23, A2:17, B:7 and C:16 caregivers. We applied 5 scales (5): 1--Patient Dependence on caregiver, from caregivers' view (D); 2--Complete caregiver burden (CB), including 12 items which measure the caregivers' subjective burden, 3--Reduced caregiver burden (RB), as the one before but with only 8 items, 4--Repercussions on the caregiver (R), which measures objective burden; 5--Specific PD tasks (ST), a scale that measures the effort the tasks implied in the PD treatment represent for the caregiver.
We studied 63 caregivers (table I): mean age: 53.43 (SD = 12.3); Sex: Females: 86.4%, Males: 13.6%, corresponding to 63 patients: mean age: 59.79 (SD = 15.9); Sex: Males: 80.3%, Females: 19.7%. Valuable results for reliability, unidimensionality, and discrimination were obtained in the 1st and 2nd phases, except for burden scale which was compound of two factors; then one of those factors was suppressed. In the 3rd phase, ANOVA did not show any differences between centres (table II). Consequently, all caregivers could be analysed together. Reliability results for each one of the third phase scales (table III) were: D: Cronbach alpha = 0,886; CB: alpha = 0,894; RB: alpha = 0,857; R: alpha = 0,892; ST: alpha = 0,62. Although the ST scale obtained an acceptable reliability, it was suppressed in the 3rd phase due to the low correlation with other scales and the fact that it was not applicable to all caregivers. Finally, a direct correlation was found between third phase scales (table IV): D-RB: r = 0.502, p < or = 0.001; D-R: r = 0.599, p < or = 0.001; RB-R: r = 0.775, p < or = 0.001. We must headlight that both Burden scales, and the Repercussion scale, obtained a direct correlation with the Dependency scale.
A questionnaire has been created to measure burden and repercussions on caregivers of peritoneal dialysis patients. It can already be applied, as requirements of both reliability and validity are fulfilled. This questionnaire can be a useful tool to prevent caregivers' burnout.

Download full-text


Available from: Josep Teixidó-Planas, Aug 12, 2015
1 Follower
10 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies analyzing the outcome of integrative care of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, whereby patients are transferred from one renal replacement modality to another according to individual needs, are scant. In this study, we analyzed 417 files of 223 hemodialysis (HD) and 194 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients starting renal replacement therapy between 1979 and 1996, to evaluate the effect of such an approach. Analysis was done for survival of patients on their first modality, for intention-to-treat survival (counting total time on renal replacement therapy, but with exclusion of time on transplantation), and for total survival. Log rank analysis was used and correction for risk factors was performed by Cox proportional hazards regression. Intention-to-treat survival and total survival were not different between PD and HD patients (log rank, P > 0.05). Technique success was higher in HD patients compared to PD patients (log rank, P = 0.01), with a success rate after 3 yr of 61 and 48%, respectively. Thirty-five patients were transferred from HD to PD and 32 from PD to HD. Transfer of PD patients to HD was accompanied by an increase in survival compared to those remaining on PD (log rank, P = 0.001), whereas, in contrast, transfer of patients from HD to PD was not (log rank, P = 0.17). Survival of patients remaining more than 48 mo on their initial modality was lower for PD patients (log rank, P < 0.01). A matched-pair analysis between patients who started on PD and who were transferred to HD later (by definition called integrative care patients), and patients who started and remained on HD, showed a survival advantage for the integrative care patients. These results indicate that patient outcome is not jeopardized by starting patients on PD, at least if patients are transferred in a timely manner to HD when PD-related problems arise.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2000; 11(1):116-25. · 9.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rapid growth in the number of dialysis patients over the age of 65 is occurring coincidentally with the overall aging of the general population. Elderly patients are often poor and physically incapacitated, needing family or social support. These patients may also be susceptible to malnutrition and have multiple complicating medical disorders in addition to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thus the selection of an appropriate dialysis modality is particularly critical in elderly patients. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) offers many advantages to elderly patients, including hemodynamic stability, steady-state chemistries, and no need to create a vascular access. However, little data are available in the literature documenting the use of CAPD in this setting. Therefore, to evaluate the efficacy of CAPD in elderly patients, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of 23 patients 65 years of age or older at the start of CAPD (elderly group). Then for each of these patients, 23 comparison subjects younger than 65 were chosen from CAPD patients at our hospital (control group). The control group was matched for sex, CAPD duration, cause of ESRD, and initial connection device. In the elderly group, 23 patients (12 male, 11 female) with a mean age of 70 +/- 4 years (range 65-86 years) were treated with CAPD for 15 +/- 17 months. In the control group, 23 patients (12 male, 11 female) with a mean age of 41 +/- 11 (range 18-57) were treated with CAPD for 16 +/- 17 months. Diabetic nephropathy was the cause of ESRD in 35% of patients. The negative CAPD selection of patients was higher in the elderly group (61% vs 17%, p = 0.0025) as well as in the group that needed a helper (61% vs 17%, p = 0.0025). The exit-site infection and peritonitis rates were not statistically different between the two groups (0.43 vs 0.91 episodes/patient-year and 1.46 vs 2.03 episodes/patient-year). The dialysate leakage and bleeding rates were comparable (13% vs 22% and 9% vs 9%). One-year catheter survival was similar in the elderly and younger patients (87.5% vs 84.0%). Although the negative CAPD selection of patients was higher in the elderly group, outcomes were similar to those seen in younger patients. Therefore, CAPD is an acceptable form of therapy for the elderly ESRD patients, particularly if a helper can participate.
    Advances in peritoneal dialysis. Conference on Peritoneal Dialysis 02/1997; 13:158-61.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During the past few decades, the pattern of end-stage renal disease has changed significantly with the emerging predominance of elderly patients. Because this heterogeneous population is characterized by a physiological decline in function of all organs, the nephrologist must contemplate the special needs of individual patients when they develop end-stage renal disease. Before the initiation of dialysis, these patients must be given detailed information to help them select the particular mode that will maximize their quality of life. According to available data, peritoneal dialysis offers some advantages for elderly patients, such as hemodynamic stability, steady-state metabolic control, good control of hypertension, independence from hospital, and avoidance of repeated vascular access. Early referral promotes the establishment of peritoneal access and minimizes the consequences of uremia, subsequent morbidity, and frequent hospitalization. Elderly patients are compliant and highly motivated to cooperate with their treatment. They have no higher modality-related complications than younger patients and their quality of life is satisfactory. Although most have comorbid conditions that interfere with self-performance of dialysis, such as impaired vision and reduced physical and mental activity, they can perform peritoneal dialysis successfully if they have a high level of family support. Patients who do not have family support may have successful peritoneal dialysis if they have access to a network of medical and social support, that is, private home nurses, rehabilitation and chronic care dialysis units, or nursing homes.
    Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 01/2000; 20(3):276-83. · 1.53 Impact Factor
Show more