Article

Estimate of the commercial value of underage drinking and adult abusive and dependent drinking to the alcohol industry

The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, Columbia University, New York, NY 10017, USA.
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.25). 06/2006; 160(5):473-8. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.160.5.473
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To document quantity and cash value of underage and adult Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-defined abusive and dependent drinking as well as underage drinking and adult DSM-IV-defined abusive and dependent drinking combined to the alcohol industry.
Analysis of multiple cross-sectional national data sets.
The 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, the 2000 US Census, the 2000 to 2001 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, and the 2001 Adams Business Research.
A total of 260,580 persons aged 12 years and older across 4 data sources.
Underage drinking or pathological drinking defined as meeting the DSM-IV criteria for abusive or dependent drinking.
Total amount of alcohol consumed and the cash value for alcohol consumed among underage and adult drinkers with DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence as well as all underage drinkers combined with adult drinkers with DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence.
The short-term cash value of underage drinking to the alcohol industry was 22.5 billion dollars in 2001-17.5% of total consumer expenditures for alcohol. The long-term commercial value of underage drinking is the contribution of underage drinking to maintaining consumption among adult drinkers with alcohol abuse and dependence, which was equal to at least 25.8 billion dollars in 2001.
The combined value of illegal underage drinking and adult pathological drinking to the industry was at least 48.3 billion dollars, or 37.5% of consumer expenditures for alcohol, in 2001. Alternative estimates suggest that these costs may be closer to 62.9 billion dollars, or 48.8% of consumer expenditures for alcohol.

0 Followers
 · 
74 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With the proliferation of the Internet and online social media use, alcohol advertisers are now marketing their products through social media sites such as YouTube, Facebook and Twitter. As a result, new recommendations have been made by the Federal Trade Commission concerning the self-regulation of digital marketing strategies, including content management on social and digital media sites. The current study sought to determine whether alcohol companies were implementing the self-imposed mandates that they have developed for online marketing. Specifically, we examined whether alcohol companies were implementing effective strategies that would prevent persons under the minimum legal drinking age in the USA from accessing their content on YouTube. We assessed 16 alcohol brands (beer and liquor) associated with the highest prevalence of past 30 day underage alcohol consumption in the USA. Fictitious YouTube user profiles were created and assigned the ages of 14, 17 and 19. These profiles then attempted to access and view the brewer-sponsored YouTube channels for each of the 16 selected brands. Every underage profile, regardless of age, was able to successfully subscribe to each of the 16 (100%) official YouTube channels. On average, two-thirds of the brands' channels were successfully viewed (66.67%). Alcohol industry provided online marketing content is predominantly accessible to underage adolescents. Thus, brewers are not following some of the self-developed and self-imposed mandates for online advertising by failing to implement effective age-restriction measures (i.e. age gates). © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
    Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement 11/2014; DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agu078
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are recognized as the primary mediators of neuronal inhibition in the spinal cord, brain stem and higher brain regions known to be sensitive to ethanol. Building evidence supports the notion that ethanol acting on GlyRs causes at least a subset of its behavioral effects and may be involved in modulating ethanol intake. For over two decades, GlyRs have been studied at the molecular level as targets for ethanol action. Despite the advances in understanding the effects of ethanol in vivo and in vitro, the precise molecular sites and mechanisms of action for ethanol in ligand-gated ion channels in general, and in GlyRs specifically, are just now starting to become understood. The present review focuses on advances in our knowledge produced by using molecular biology, pressure antagonism, electrophysiology and molecular modeling strategies over the last two decades to probe, identify and model the initial molecular sites and mechanisms of ethanol action in GlyRs. The molecular targets on the GlyR are covered on a global perspective, which includes the intracellular, transmembrane and extracellular domains. The latter has received increasing attention in recent years. Recent molecular models of the sites of ethanol action in GlyRs and their implications to our understanding of possible mechanism of ethanol action and novel targets for drug development in GlyRs are discussed.
    Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 07/2010; 127(1):53-65. DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2010.03.003 · 7.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to evaluate the interdisciplinary aspects of Project MAINSTREAM, a faculty development program that trained 39 competitively selected health professional tutors in substance abuse education. Mid-career faculty fellows (tutors) from 14 different health professions across the US dedicated 20% of their academic time for two years to Project MAINSTREAM. Teams of three fellows carried out curricular enhancement and service-learning field project requirements in mentored Interdisciplinary Faculty Learning Groups (IFLGs). Formative and summative evaluations were conducted via written questionnaires and confidential telephone interviews. The importance of interdisciplinary education was rated positively (mean of 3.57 on 1 - 5 scale). Using 18 parameters, fellows preferred interdisciplinary over single disciplinary teaching (means ranged from 3.40 - 4.86), and reported high levels of benefit from their interdisciplinary collaborations (means ranged from 3.53 - 4.56). Fellows reported that interdisciplinary educational collaborations were feasible (3.31) at their home institutions. The majority (63%) said that their trainees, colleagues, supervisors and institutions valued interdisciplinary training either "highly" or "somewhat", but 22% did not value it. The fellows identified scheduling conflicts (3.46), and lack of faculty rewards (3.46) such as pay or credit toward promotion, as two barriers that they encountered.
    Journal of Interprofessional Care 01/2007; 20(6):655-64. DOI:10.1080/13561820600893890 · 1.36 Impact Factor