Sleeping beauty: a novel cancer gene discovery tool
ABSTRACT The National Cancer Institute and the National Human Genome Research Institute recently announced a 3-year 100-million-dollar pilot study to use large-scale resequencing of genes in human tumors to identify new cancer genes. The hope is that some of these genes can be used as drug targets for developing better therapeutics for treating cancer. Although this effort will identify new cancer genes, it could be made more efficient by preferentially resequencing genes identified as novel candidate cancer genes in animal models of cancer. Although retroviral insertional mutagenesis has proven to be an effective tool for identifying novel cancer genes in the mouse, these studies are limited by the fact that retroviral mutagenesis primarily induces hematopoietic and mammary cancer, but little else, while the majority of cancers affecting humans are solid tumors. Recently, two groups have shown that sleeping beauty (SB) transposon-based insertional mutagenesis can also identify novel candidate cancer genes in the mouse. Unlike retroviral infection, SB transposition can be controlled to mutagenize any target tissue and thus potentially induce many different kinds of cancer, including solid tumors. SB transposition in animal models of cancer could therefore greatly facilitate the identification of novel human cancer genes and the development of better cancer therapies.
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ABSTRACT: The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is a Tc1/mariner family transposon that has been transpositionally inactive for over 10 million years. The SB transposon system was awakened from inactive Tc1-like transposable elements by using molecular phylogenetic data in 1997. Recent studies on its transposition efficiency and mechanism have shown its broad applications in vertebrate animals for gene-screening, gene transfer, and human gene therapy. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of Sleeping Beauty, such as structure, transposition mechanism and potential applications, and bring forward some means aiming at the limitations of transposon technology.Hereditas (Beijing) 08/2007; 29(7):785-92.
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- "In parallel to these loss-of-function approaches, candidate oncogenes have been identified using screening tools such as cDNA libraries derived from cancer cells or the use of viral integration to activate endogenous genes (Dupuy et al., 2006; Peeper et al., 2002). Here we have combined both gain-of-function and lossof-function approaches with whole-genome characterization of genetic alterations in cancer cell lines and tumors. "
ABSTRACT: The karyotypic chaos exhibited by human epithelial cancers complicates efforts to identify mutations critical for malignant transformation. Here we integrate complementary genomic approaches to identify human oncogenes. We show that activation of the ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways cooperate to transform human cells. Using a library of activated kinases, we identify several kinases that replace PI3K signaling and render cells tumorigenic. Whole genome structural analyses reveal that one of these kinases, IKBKE (IKKepsilon), is amplified and overexpressed in breast cancer cell lines and patient-derived tumors. Suppression of IKKepsilon expression in breast cancer cell lines that harbor IKBKE amplifications induces cell death. IKKepsilon activates the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway in both cell lines and breast cancers. These observations suggest a mechanism for NF-kappaB activation in breast cancer, implicate the NF-kappaB pathway as a downstream mediator of PI3K, and provide a framework for integrated genomic approaches in oncogene discovery.Cell 07/2007; 129(6):1065-79. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2007.03.052 · 33.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In spite of a vast number of drug preparations used in medicine, advances in treating most socially important human diseases remain modest. Historically, many drugs were developed without clear understanding of the mechanisms of their action and were intended only for correcting symptoms of the disease. Identification of molecular targets in pharmacological screening new pharmaceuticals plays a key role not only in defining the strategy of the treatment, but also in understanding the general development of the disease. Sequencing of the genomes of various organisms, human in particular, and the development of new modern techniques of research have created the prerequisites for targeted screening for genes that are potentially interesting for development of new drugs.Russian Journal of Genetics 07/2009; 45(7):761-770. DOI:10.1134/S1022795409070011 · 0.41 Impact Factor