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    ABSTRACT: Invasive fungal infection is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The occurrence of two invasive fungal infections in one patient at the same time is quite rare. Here the authors report on two adolescent patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed combined invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and hepatosplenic candidiasis during chemotherapy. They were treated with liposomal amphotericin B, but one of them died due to massive pulmonary hemorrhage during recovery from neutropenia.
    Pediatric Hematology and Oncology 04/2008; 25(2):99-106. DOI:10.1080/08880010701885235 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Fungal infection is a significant problem, causing of infective deaths of leukemic patients. The situation in developing countries is not well documented. The purpose of this study was characterizing IFD by analyzing data retrospectively to determine the incidence, predisposing factors, diagnostic methods, efficacy of treatment, and the outcome in pediatric patients with hematological disorders. Materials and Methods: There were 160 children with leukemia (22 AML, 129 ALL) and 9 with aplastic anemia (AA). The diagnostic criteria for IFD were defined according to the EORTC/MSG, 2008. IFD was classified as proven or probable. Empiric antifungal treatment with L-AmB was commenced by day 5-7 of persistent fever. Patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) who were refractory to primary treatment were commenced on voriconazole (VCZ). Salvage therapy as combination of VCZ and caspofungin was given to those with progressive infection. Results: The incidence of IFD was found 23 (14.3%). 19 with leukemia (14 ALL, 5 AML) and 4 with aplastic anemia were diagnosed as IFD. IA was the dominant cause of infection (n=17) and the rest (n: 6) had candidiasis. Ten children had “proven” infection and 13 children were defined as “probable”. The most frequent site of infection was lungs. In our series, the most frequently used diagnostic methods were clinical findings (100%) and radiologic methods (84%). The success rate of treatment for candidiasis and IA were found 60%, 71% respectively. IFD related death rate was found 30%.Conclusion: IFD is still a major morbidity and mortality reason in children with hematologic disorders. However, the availability of new antifungal treatments and diagnostic tests will improve the survival rates in these children.
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    ABSTRACT: Children with acute leukemia have increased risk for invasive fungal infections (IFI) but the role of long term antifungal prophylaxis (AFP) in morbidity and mortality of IFI is not well-known. Medical records of 154 children with acute leukemia who received AFP with fluconazole during intensive chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed to determine risk factors, clinical characteristics and outcome of IFI. The overall incidence of IFI was 13.6%. Frequencies of proven, probable and possible infections were 7.2%, 2.6%, and 3.8%, respectively. The causative agent was Candida in 12 (57.2%) and Aspergillus in 9 (42.8%) children. There were 10 children with candidemia (47.6%), 7 with pulmonary aspergillosis (33.4%), 2 with hepatosplenic candidiasis (10.0%), one with sinopulmonary aspergillosis (4.5%) and one with sinus aspergillosis (4.5%). IFI was twice as common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (20.7%) than in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (10.2%). Duration of profound neutropenia (P = 0.01) and steroid medications (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with IFI in univariate but not in multivariate analysis. Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) was successful in 15 of 21 children as a single agent. Voriconazole produced complete response in four children with invasive aspergillosis and two with hepatosplenic candidiasis, who were unresponsive to L-AMB. The rate of IFI attributable death was 5%. Our results indicate that AFP with fluconazole and early empirical antifungal therapy may be effective in reducing the incidence and mortality of IFI in children with acute leukemia.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 04/2009; 52(4):470-5. DOI:10.1002/pbc.21868 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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