Reduction of Urinary Tract Infection and Antibiotic Use after Surgery: A Controlled, Prospective, Before-After Intervention Study

Department of Surgery , University of Geneva, Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 07/2006; 42(11):1544-51. DOI: 10.1086/503837
Source: PubMed


Urinary tract infection is the most frequent health care-associated complication. We hypothesized that the implementation of a multifaceted prevention strategy could decrease its incidence after surgery.
In a controlled, prospective, before-after intervention trial with 1328 adult patients scheduled for orthopedic or abdominal surgery, nosocomial infection surveillance was conducted until hospital discharge. A multifaceted intervention including specifically tailored, locally developed guidelines for the prevention of urinary tract infection was implemented for orthopedic surgery patients, and abdominal surgery patients served as control subjects. Infectious and noninfectious complications, adherence to guidelines, and antibiotic use were monitored before and after the intervention and again 2 years later.
The incidence of urinary tract infection decreased from 10.4 to 3.9 episodes per 100 patients in the intervention group (incidence-density ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.20-0.79; P=.004). Adherence to guidelines was 82.2%. Both the frequency and the duration of urinary catheterization decreased following the intervention. Recourse to antibiotic therapy after surgery dropped in the intervention group from 17.9 to 15.6 defined daily doses per 100 patient-days (P<.005) because of a reduced need for the treatment of urinary tract infection (P<.001). Follow-up after 2 years revealed a sustained impact of the strategy and a subsequent low use of antibiotics, consistent with stable adherence to guidelines (80.8%).
A multifaceted prevention strategy can dramatically decrease postoperative urinary tract infection and contribute to the reduction of the overall use of antibiotics after surgery.

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    • "Although it cannot be excluded that short duration catheterisation might predispose to subsequent UTI, this is unlikely given the low UTI incidence of only 2% [45] to 2.5% [46] at 24 h of UC use. Moreover, at least in the largest institution involved in the current study, this assumption would not be true [47]. Since 2001, UC during surgery is restricted to patients with a foreseen duration of more than 5 h or for arthroplasty surgery if the patient meets one of the following conditions: age >75 years; ASA class >3 points; presence of morbid obesity or urinary incontinence [43,48]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Exposure to urinary catheters is considered the most important risk factor for healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) and is associated with significant morbidity and substantial extra-costs. In this study, we assessed the impact of urinary catheterisation (UC) on symptomatic healthcare-associated UTI among hospitalized patients. Methods A nationwide period prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections was conducted during 1 May to 30 June 2004 in 49 Swiss hospitals and included 8169 adult patients (4313 female; 52.8%) hospitalised in medical, surgical, intermediate, and intensive care wards. Additional data were collected on exposure to UC to investigate factors associated with UTI among hospitalised adult patients exposed and non-exposed to UC. Results 1917 (23.5%) patients were exposed to UC within the week prior to survey day; 126 (126/8169; 1.5%) developed UTI. Exposure to UC preceded UTI only in 73 cases (58%). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, UTI was independently associated with exposure to UC (odds ratio [OR], 3.9 [95% CI, 2.6-5.9]), female gender (OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.4-3.1]), an American Society of Anesthesiologists’ score > 2 points (OR, 3.2 [95% CI, 1.1-9.4], and prolonged hospital stay >20 days (OR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-3.2]. Further analysis showed that the only significant factor for UTI with exposure to UC use was prolonged hospital stay >40 days (OR, 2.9 [95% CI, 1.3-6.1], while female gender only showed a tendency (OR, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.0-2.7]. In the absence of exposure to UC, the only significant risk factor for UTI was female gender (OR, 3.3 [95% CI, 1.7-6.5]). Conclusions Exposure to UC was the most important risk factor for symptomatic healthcare-associated UTI, but only concerned about half of all patients with UTI. Further investigation is warranted to improve overall infection control strategies for UTI.
    02/2013; 2(1):5. DOI:10.1186/2047-2994-2-5
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    • "Current knowledge suggests that, by applying evidence-based measures during surgery, major contributions can be made in reducing the risk of SSI and device–related infections (DRI). This includes securing the correct timing of prophylactic antibiotics [5], maintaining intraoperative normothermia during surgery [6,7], avoiding the inadequate use of urinary tract catheterization (UTC) [8,9] and, above all, adhering to basic hand hygiene precautions [10]. In order to succeed, all the members of the operating room (OR) team, including anesthetic nurses and physicians, need to have scientific knowledge on how this can be accomplished. "
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    ABSTRACT: Current knowledge suggests that, by applying evidence-based measures relating to the correct use of prophylactic antibiotics, perioperative normothermia, urinary tract catheterization and hand hygiene, important contributions can be made to reducing the risk of postoperative infections and device-related infections. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the application of intraoperative evidence-based measures, designed to reduce the risk of infection. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether the type of surgery, i.e. total joint arthroplasty compared with tibia and femur/hip fracture surgery, affected the use of protective measures. Data on the clinical application of evidence-based measures were collected structurally on site during 69 consecutively included operations involving fracture surgery (n = 35) and total joint arthroplasties (n = 34) using a pre-tested observation form. For observations in relation to hand disinfection, a modified version of the World Health Organization hand hygiene observation method was used. In all, only 29 patients (49%) of 59 received prophylaxis within the recommended time span. The differences in the timing of prophylactic antibiotics between total joint arthroplasty and fracture surgery were significant, i.e. a more accurate timing was implemented in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (p = 0.02). Eighteen (53%) of the patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty were actively treated with a forced-air warming system. The corresponding number for fracture surgery was 12 (34%) (p = 0.04). Observations of 254 opportunities for hand hygiene revealed an overall adherence rate of 10.3% to hand disinfection guidelines. The results showed that the utilization of evidence-based measures to reduce infections in clinical practice is not sufficient and there are unjustifiable differences in care depending on the type of surgery. The poor adherence to hand hygiene precautions in the operating room is a serious problem for patient safety and further studies should focus on resolving this problem. The WHO Safe Surgery checklist “time out” worked as an important reminder, but is not per se a guarantee of safety; it is the way we act in response to mistakes or lapses that finally matters.
    Patient Safety in Surgery 06/2012; 6(1):11. DOI:10.1186/1754-9493-6-11
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