Persistence and transformation of thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid insecticide, in soil of different agroclimatic zones of India.
Division of Agricultural Chemicals, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India.Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (impact factor: 1.02). 04/2006; 76(3):400-6. DOI:10.1007/s00128-006-0935-9 pp.400-6
Article: Release kinetics of controlled release formulations of thiamethoxam employing nano-ranged amphiphilic PEG and diacid based block polymers in soil.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Amphiphilic copolymers, synthesized from poly(ethylene glycols) and various aliphatic and aromatic diacids, which self-assemble into nanomicellar aggregates in aqueous media, were used to develop controlled release (CR) formulations of thiamethoxam (3-(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-5-methyl-1,3,5-oxadiazinan-4-ylidene(nitro)amine) using encapsulation technique Formulations were characterised by Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and stability after accelerated storage test of the developed formulations were checked. The kinetics of thiamethoxam, released in sandy loam soil from the different formulations was studied. Release from the commercial formulation was faster than the CR formulations. The time taken for release of 50 % of thiamethoxam ranged from 3.56 to 6.07 days for the CR formulations. Although the diffusion exponent (n value) of thiamethoxam in soil ranged from 0.532 to 0.881 in the tested formulations showing non-Fickian transport. These CR formulations may be used in safer, effective and economic crop protection.Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 09/2012; 47(11):1701-12.
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